International Science Index

International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Studies on the Bioactivity of Different Solvents Extracts of Selected Marine Macroalgae against Fish Pathogens
Selected species of marine benthic algae belonging to the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae, collected from different coastal areas of Alexandria (Egypt), were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal, activities against fish pathogens. In vitro screening of organic solvents extracts from the marine macroalgae, Laurencia pinnatifida (Hudson) Stackhouse, Pterocladia capillaceae (Gmelin), Halopteris scoparia (Linnaeus) Kutzing, Stepopodium zonale (J.V. Lamouroux) and Sargassum hystrix var. fluitans Borgesen, showed specific activity in inhibiting the growth of five virulent strains of bacteria pathogenic to fish Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, V. tandara, Escherichia coli and of two fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. niger. Acetone and ethanol extracts of all test macroalgae exhibited antibacterial activity, while acetone extract of S. hystrix exhibited the highest antifungal activity. Macroalgal extracts inhibited bacteria more readily than fungi, besides, the extracts of the Rhodophyceae species showed the greatest activity against current test bacteria rather than fungi. Cluster analysis revealed the general response of the tested pathogens to the action of the different algal extracts. Composition of the most potent algal extracts included acetone extracts of L. pinnatifida, P. capillaceae and S. hystrix and ethanol extract of P. capillaceae was determined using GC-MS. The present study provides the potential of red and brown macroalgae extracts for the development of anti-pathogenic agents for use in fish aquaculture.
Stun Practices in Swine in the Valle De Aburrá and Animal Welfare
Introduction: Stunning is an important stage in the meat industry due to the repercussions on the characteristics of the carcass. It has been demonstrated that inadequate stun can lead to hematomas, fractures and promote the appearance of pale, soft and exudative meat due to the stress caused in animals. In Colombia, gas narcosis and electrical stunning are the two authorized methods in pigs. Objective: To describe the practices of stunning in the Valle de Aburrá and its relation with animal welfare. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá slaughterhouses, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as stunning method, presence of vocalization, falls, slips, rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex and attempts to incorporate after stunning, stun time and time between stun and bleeding were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 50.2% had electrical stun, whose amperage and voltage were 1.23 (A) and 120 (V) respectively; 49.8% of the animals were stunned with CO2 chamber whose concentration was always above 95%, the mean desensitization time was 16.8 seconds (d.e.5.37); the mean time of stunning - bleeding was 47.9 seconds (d.e.13.9); similarly, it was found that 27.1% had vocalizations after stunning; 12% had falls; 10.7% showed rhythmic breathing; 33.3% exhibited corneal reflex; and 10.7% had reincorporation attempts. Conclusions: The methods of stunning used in the Valle de Aburrá, although performed with those permitted by law, are shortcomings in relation to the amperage and voltage used for each type of pig, as well, it is found that welfare animal is being violated to find signology of an inadequate desensitization. It is necessary to promote compliance with the principles of stunning according to Animal Welfare, and keep in mind that in electrical desensitization, the calibration of the equipment must be guaranteed (pressure according to the type of animal or current applied and the position where the electrodes are) and in the narcosis the equipment should be calibrated to ensure proper gas concentration and exposure time.
Management Practices in Holding Pens in Pig’s Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia and Animal Welfare
Introduction: The management of pigs in the holding pens at the slaughterhouses is a key point to minimize levels of stress and fear, improve efficiency, maintain a good quality of meat and avoid economic losses. Holding pens should guarantee drinking water continuously, a minimum space of 1.2 m2/ animal; As well as an adequate management in the conduction of the animals towards stun. Objective: To characterize the management practices in holding pens in slaughterhouses in the Valle de Aburrá. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá benefit plants, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as management mechanisms to the pens, time of housing, water supply, load density, vocalization, slips and falls of the animals in the pens and mechanism of conduction towards desensitization were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 35.6% were lowered with slaps from the trucks to the waiting pens; The lairage time was greater than 10 hours in 16% of the animals; 12.9% of pigs had no water permanently; 40.9% was subjected to a high load density, while 19.6% had a low load density. Regarding aspects of animal welfare, 37.3% presented high vocalizations; 29.3% and 14.2% presented slips or falls respectively. Regarding the mechanism of conduction towards desensitization, slapping was used in 56% and electrical prod in 4%. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue promoting the learning of the densities of load, since both high and low densities generate inconveniences in animal welfare, favoring the appearance of lesions and stress in the animals. Also, to promote the rule of permanent water in the pens and a time of housing less than 10 hours. In relation to the driving mechanisms, it is necessary to continue animal husbandry campaigns, encouraging the use of other alternatives such as boards or panels to assist the movement of pigs.
Analizing of Good Dairy Practices in Dairy Farm Management in Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta: The Effect of Good Management in Milk Production
The dairy farm has strategic roles in meeting the demand of foods. Sleman Regency is a central dairy production in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Sleman district has a population of 3954 heads dairy cattle with an environmental temperature of 22 to 35 degrees Celsius and humidity 74 to 87% which makes a good location for a dairy cattle farm. The dairy cattle that are kept by the majority of the Friesian Holstein Crossbreed are predominantly reared by conventional management. Sleman Regency accounts for 7.3% of national milk production. Factors influencing include genetic, environmental, and management. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) application on milk production in Sleman Regency. The data collection was conducted in January 2017 until May 2017 using survey and interviews methods at 5 locations of dairy farms selected randomly. Data were analyzed with the chi-square test. The result of this research showed that GDFP point was management 1,47 points (less good). The result showed that Good Dairy Farming Practices (GDFP) has a positive effect on milk production.
Management in the Transport of Pigs to Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia
Introduction: Transport is a crucial link in the porcine chain because it is considered a stressful event in the animal, due to it is a new environment, which generates new interactions, together with factors such as speed, noise, temperature changes, vibrations, deprivation of food and water. Therefore, inadequate handling at this stage can lead to bruises, musculoskeletal injuries, fatigue, and mortality, resulting in canal seizures and economic losses. Objective: To characterize the transport and driving practices for the mobilization of standing pigs directed to slaughter plants in the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia in 2017. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with the transporters arriving at the slaughterhouses approved by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA) during 2017 in the Valle de Aburrá. The process of obtaining the samples was made from probabilistic sampling. Variables such as journey time, mechanical technical certificate, training in animal welfare, driving speed, material, and condition of floors and separators, supervision of animals during the trip, load density and mortality were analyzed. It was approved by the ethics committee for the use and care of animals CICUA of CES University, Act number 14 of 2015. Results: 190 trucks were analyzed, finding that 12.4% did not have updated mechanical technical certificate; the transporters experience in pig’s transportation was an average of 9.4 years (d.e.7.5). The 85.8% reported not having received training in animal welfare. Other results were that the average speed was 63.04km/hr (d.e 13.46) and the 62% had floors in good condition; nevertheless, the 48% had bad conditions on separators. On the other hand, the 88% did not supervise their animals during the journey, although the 62.2% had an adequate loading density, in relation to the average mortality was 0.2 deaths/travel (d.e. 0.5). Conclusions: Trainers should be encouraged on issues such as proper maintenance of vehicles, animal welfare, obligatory review of animals during mobilization and speed of driving, as these poorly managed indicators generate stress in animals, increasing generation of injuries as well as possible accidents; also, it is necessary to continue to improve aspects such as aluminum floors and separators that favor easy cleaning and maintenance, as well as the appropriate handling in the density of load that generates animal welfare.
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lemon peel essential oil (Citrus limon) on serum parameters and liver enzyme activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was exposed to deltamethrin. The 96-hour lethal concentrations of the toxin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), was determined according to standard procedures O.E.C.D in static (Static). 96-hour LC50 was obtained 0.0082 mg/l by using statistical methods Probit program version. The maximum allowable concentration of deltamethrin was calculated 0.00082 mg/l in natural environment and was used for this experiment. Eight treatments were designed based on 3 levels of lemon essential oil 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and 2 levels of deltamethrin 0 and 0.00082. Rainbow trout with an average weight of 95.14 ± 3.8 g were distributed in 300-liter tanks and cultured for eight weeks. Fish were fed in an amount of 2% of body weight. Water changes were done on a daily basis (90 percent of the tank). About the tanks containing 10 % deltamethrin, after dewatering, suitable concentration of toxin was added to water. At the end of the test, serum biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides) and liver enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT and LDH) were evaluated. In treatments without and with toxin, increasing 400 mg/kg oil increased total protein and albumin levels and lower cholesterol and triglycerides were observed (p < 0.05). Rise to the level of 400 mg/kg of lemon peel essential oil treatments contain pesticides, reduced the amount of enzymes ALP, ALT and LDH compared to treatment of toxin-free lemon peel essential oil (p < 0.05). The results showed that usage of lemon peel essential oil in fish diet can increase the immune system parameters and strengthen it with strong antioxidant activity followed by reducing the effect of deltamethrin on the immune system of fish and effective dose can prevent the adverse effects of toxin due to the weakening of the fish immune system at the time of toxic pollutant entrance in fish farms.
Analyzing the Support to Fisheries in the European Union: Modelling Budgetary Transfers in Wild Fisheries
Fisheries subsidies are focus on reduce management costs or deliver income benefits to fishers. In 2015, total fishery budgetary transfers in 31 OECD countries represented 35% of their total landing value. However, subsidies to fishing have adverse effects on trade and it has been claimed that they may contribute directly to overfishing. Therefore, this paper analyses to what extend fisheries subsidies may 1) influence capture production facing quotas and 2) affect price dynamics. The study uses the fish module in AGMEMOD (Agriculture Member States Modelling, details see Chantreuil et al. (2012)) which covers eight fish categories (cephalopods; crustaceans; demersal marine fish; pelagic marine fish; molluscs excl. cephalopods; other marine finfish species; freshwater and diadromous fish) for EU member states and other selected countries developed under the SUCCESS project. This model incorporates transfer payments directly linked to fisheries operational costs. As aquaculture and wild fishery are not included within the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, data on fisheries subsidies is obtained from the OECD Fisheries Support Estimates (FSE) database, which provides statistics on budgetary transfers to the fisheries sector. Since support has been moving from budgetary transfers to General Service Support Estimate the last years, subsidies in capture production may not present substantial effects. Nevertheless, they would still show the impact across countries and fish categories within the European Union.
Dry-Extrusion of Asian Carp, a Sustainable Source of Natural Methionine for Organic Poultry Production
Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methionine is unavailable. Invasive Asian carp (AC) are a potential natural methionine source; however, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish methionine. Commercially available rendering is environmentally challenging due to the offensive smell produced during production. We explored extrusion technology as a potential cost effective alternative to fish rendering. We also determined the amino acid composition, digestible amino acids and total metabolizable energy (TMEn) for the extruded AC fish meal. Dry extrusion of AC was carried out by mixing the fish with soybean meal (SBM) in a 1:1 proportion to reduce high moisture in the fishmeal using an Insta Pro Jr. dry extruder followed by drying and grinding of the product. To determine the digestible amino acids and TMEn of the extruded product, a colony of cecectomized Bovans White Roosters was used. Adult roosters (48 weeks of age) were fasted for 30 h and tube fed 35 grams of 3 treatments: (1) extruded AC fish meal, (2) SBM and (3) corn. Excreta from each individual bird was collected for the next 48 h. An additional 10 unfed roosters served as endogenous controls. The gross energy and protein content of the feces from the treatments were determined to calculate the TMEn. Fecal samples and treatment feeds were analyzed for amino acid content and percent digestible amino acid. Results from the analysis suggested that addition of Asian carp increased the methionine content of SBM from 0.63 to 0.83%. Also, the digestibility of amino acid and the TMEn values were greater for the AC meal with SBM than SBM alone. The dry extruded AC meal analysis is indicative that the product can replace SBM alone and enhance natural methionine in a standard poultry ration. The results from feed formulation using different concentrations of the AC fish meal depict a potential diet which can supplement the required methionine content in organic poultry production.
Cytogenetic Analysis of Vitrified Warmed in vitro Matured Ovine Oocyte: Beneficial Effects of Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic Acid, an Intracellular Calcium Chelator
Successful cryopreservation of mature oocytes would create a promising method for female genetic conservation in many threatened mammalian species. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of numerical chromosome abnormalities following vitrification of in vitro matured ovine oocytes using different concentrations of calcium. After in vitro maturation (24h), oocytes were randomly divided into control (fresh) and experimental (vitrified) groups. Accordingly, four experimental groups were established depending on different calcium concentrations in base media of vitrification solution: mPB1⁺ (modified Phosphate Buffered Saline [PBS] with Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺), mPB1⁻ (modified PBS without Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺), mPB1⁺/EGTA (mPB1⁺ containing 2mM Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic acid [EGTA]), mPB1⁻/EGTA(mPB1⁻ containing 2mM EGTA). Base media supplemented with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in all experimental groups. In vitro matured oocytes were initially equilibrated in 7.5% Ethylene glycol (EG)+ 7.5% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the base medium for 3 min followed by an incubation in vitrification solution composed of 15% EG+15% DMSO and 0.5 M trehalose in the base medium for maximum 1 min. After vitrification and warming, oocyte survival was morphologically examined under a stereomicroscope. Viable oocytes were subjected to cytogenetic analysis using karyotyping method. All percentage data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA after arcsine transformation. Differences were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. No significant difference was found between vitrified and fresh groups in oocyte survival rate. Also, the incidence of numerical chromosome abnormalities was significantly affected by the composition of vitrification solution. Our data revealed that vitrification of oocytes in mPB1-/EGTA group led to a significant decline in percentage of abnormal oocytes compared to other vitrified groups (25.0% in mPB1⁻ /EGTA vs. 34.3%, 42.9% and 48.6% in mPB1⁻, mPB1⁺ and mPB1⁺/ EGTA, respectively). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between fresh and mPB1⁻/EGTA group in oocyte abnormalities (8.6% and 25.0%, respectively). In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that supplementation of vitrification solution with EGTA, a specific calcium chelator, significantly reduced the incidence of numerical chromosome abnormalities after cryopreservation.
Antigenic Diversity of Theileria parva Isolates from Cattle and Buffalo at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Southern and Eastern Africa
Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by an apicomplexan protozoan parasite of the genus Theileria. In eastern and southern Africa, Theileria infections in cattle are caused by the species Theileria parva whose natural reservoir is the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Currently, East Coast Fever (ECF) caused by the cattle-derived Theileria parva is still a major problem in eastern Africa and some parts of southern Africa but not in South Africa following its eradication in the 1950s. However, Corridor disease (CD) caused by the buffalo-derived Theileria parva still remains a concern in South Africa. The diversity of Theileria parva in South Africa in comparison to other affected countries is poorly defined yet its known to be the survival strategy of this parasite. We assessed the antigenic diversity of Theileria parva isolates from Buffalo and cattle at the wildlife-livestock interface comparing samples from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Antigenic epitopes of eight schizont antigen genes (Tp1, Tp3, Tp4, Tp5, Tp6, Tp7, Tp8 and Tp10) were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples collected from cattle and buffalo at the wildlife-livestock interface. Amplicons were purified and then sequenced on NGS platform. Full length open reading frames (ORFs) of two schizont antigen genes (Tp2 and Tp9) and one sporozoite antigen gene, p67 were also amplified from genomic DNA. Amplicons were then purified and cloned for sequencing. Analysis was based on sequence differences in the genes. Preliminary results show an extensively diverse population of Theileria parva circulating in buffalo and cattle populations at the wildlife-livestock interface. Diversity of the antigen genes contributes to the evasion of the immune system of the host by Theileria parva. This possess a concern in that, some of the Theileria parva populations may re-assort and become adapted to cattle to cause a form of theileriosis that is as fatal as ECF in areas where ECF was eradicated or is absent
The Reproductive Parameters in Crossbred of Hair Sheep in Tropical Regions of Mexico
The neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico; by contrast, these mechanisms are not activated in Creole and hair sheep. In female hair sheep breeds from tropical latitudes (16° to 21° North Latitude) show low estrus activity from January to May. By contrast, these breeds of sheep show high estrus activity from August to December. Unlike sheep of temperate climate, the use of tropical sheep breeds has allowed breaking the paradigm of obtaining a lambing per female per year, thereby enabling continuous production of lambs. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive parameters (open days, lambing interval, and prolificacy) in two reproductive cycles in crossbred of Hair Sheep under conditions of mating continuous, in the Southwestern Mexico. The study was developed in the municipality of Jiquipilas, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (16° North Latitude).The design of study was observational longitudinal and consisted in observing and registering all the mating (sexual behavior) and lambing during two reproductive cycles. A total of 10 female sheep (Crossbred of Pelibuey and Blackbelly Ewes) homogeneous in terms of physical condition, age and physiological state were selected in June, 2014. Later, in July 21th, 2014, the ewes were exposed to male sheep, which remained in full contact with female sheep during all study period. The experimental group, (ewes; n=10, and male sheep; n=1) remained in the farmyard during the afternoon and night. In the morning (08:00 to 13:00 h) all animals were feed in grazing continuous mainly with Africa star grass (Cynodon lemfuensis).In the Afternoon (from 13:00 h, all animals were locked in the farmyard and supplemented with a diet of maize and sorghum forage. The water and mineral salts was provided ad libitum. Data of the reproductive parameters were analyzed by chi-squared test, using SAS statistical software. The proportion of hair ewes crossbred that lambed during the study period was high (100%; 10/10) in two reproductive cycles. The ewes had two reproductive cycles in a period of 14 months at second lambing and 16 months at post-weaning. The open days were (107.2 ± 12.11 d); and the lambing interval was (261.9 ± 14.6 d). The prolificacy was similar in both reproductive cycles (1.1; 1.2, respectively). The First Lambing Period showed a difference (P < 0.05) respect to Second Lambing Period (18 vs. 33 d, respectively). The most important finding is that in conditions to both, grazing and mating continuous, in the Hair Sheep Crossbred is possible to break the paradigm of obtaining a birth per female per year, thereby enabling continuous production of lambs. It can be concluded that, due to reproductive efficiency of the Hair Sheep crossbred is feasible to obtain three lambing per ewe in two years. Future research should take into account to compare the reproductive efficiency in different breeds of Hair sheep.
Seasonal Lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin Ewes in Tropical Regions of Chiapas, Mexico
In recent years, the Katahdin sheep breeds have been one of the breeds with greater acceptance by sheep farmers in southwestern Mexico. The Hair Sheep breeds from tropical latitudes (16° to 21° North Latitude) show low estrus activity from January to May. By contrast, these breeds of sheep exhibit high estrus activity from August to December. However, the reproductive management of Hair Sheep crossbred is very limited, independently of the socioeconomic levels of sheep farmers. Thus, in crossbred of Hair Sheep, occurrence of lambing is greater in autumn (84%) than spring (16%). In this sense, the aim of this study was to determine the lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin sheep during different seasons of the year. The Hypothesis was that in crossbred of Katahdin sheep, the lambing period has a behavior seasonal in the Southwestern Mexico. The study design consisted of evaluating the lambing proportion in one herds of Katahdin ewes crossbred during one year (October 1st, 2015 to October 1st, 2016). The study was realized in a farm located in the municipality of Jiquipilas, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (16° North Latitude). A total of 40 female sheep homogeneous in terms of physical condition, age and physiological state were selected; and they were fed in grazing continuous, mainly with Africa star grass (Cynodon lemfuensis) and they are provided with water and mineral salts ad libitum; during the dry season, the ewes were supplemented with a diet of maize and sorghum, and the reproductive management was continuous mating. The lambing proportion was analyzed by chi-squared test, using SAS statistical software. The proportion of Katahdin ewes crossbred that lambed during the study period was high (100%; 40/40), the prolificacy was 1.42 (lamb/lambing). The proportion of lambing was higher (P
High Prevalence of Canine Mammary Gland Tumor in Nulliparous Compared with Multiparous Female Dogs
Many factors initiate mammary gland tumor in female dogs such as age, breed, sex, estrous cycle, birth control and pseudopregnancy. Those factors are mostly associated with canine sex hormone. In this study, questionnaires and direct interviews were used to collect information from owners of female dogs that had been diagnosed as mammary tumors at our veterinary teaching hospital, during January 2015 to October 2016 to compare the prevalence of mammary tumor between nulliparous and multiparous female dogs. 200 dogs (from all 212 mammary tumor patients, some were excluded because of inadequate information) were included in the study, 72.5% were nulliparous and 27.5% were multiparous. The results revealed that breed, age, birth control age and birth control methods were not different in both groups; most dogs in both groups were various purebreds, geriatric age, and low incidence of hormonal contraception while 100% of multiparous dogs and 83.7% of nulliparous dogs had been neutered at over two years old. The significant differences between two groups were the frequency of pseudopregnancy and estrus which were much higher in nulliparous female dogs. It can be concluded from our study that nulliparous dogs may be more likely at higher risk of mammary tumor compared to multiparous dogs from various factors especially, the frequency of estrus and the occurrence of pseudopregnancy which related to more times of sex hormonal contact. This study was a preliminary data for further studies to determine the other risk factors of mammary gland tumors in dogs, and to our knowledge, it is the first report on a significantly higher prevalence of mammary tumor in nulliparous female dogs than that in multiparous dogs. This finding corresponds with the study of breast cancer in women but may be from different causes and factors due to the differences in estrous physiology.
Selection of Developmental Stages of Bovine in vitro-Derived Blastocysts Prior to Vitrification and Embryo Transfer: Implications for Cattle Breeding Programs
Identification of the most suitable stages of bovine in vitro-derived blastocysts (early, expanded and hatching) prior to vitrification is a straightforward process that facilitates the decision as to which blastocyst stage to use for transfer of fresh and vitrified embryos. Research on in vitro evaluation of suitable stages has shown that the more advanced developmental stage of blastocysts is recommended for fresh embryo transfer while the earlier stage is proposed for embryo transfer following vitrification. There is, however, limited information on blastocyst stages using in vivo assessment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the optimal stage of a blastocyst for vitrification and embryo transfer through a two-step procedure of embryo transfer followed by pregnancy testing at 35, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. 410 good quality oocytes aspirated by the ovum pick-up technique from 8 donor cows were subjected to in vitro embryo production, vitrification and embryo transfer. Good quality embryos were selected, subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer. Subsequently, 77 vitrified embryos at different blastocyst stages were transferred to synchronised recipient cows. The overall cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes were 68.8% and 41.7%, respectively. In addition, the fertility and blastocyst production of 6 bulls used for in vitro fertilization was examined and shown to be statistically different (P
Fertilizer Value of Nitrogen Captured from Poultry Facilities Using Ammonia Scrubbers
Research has shown that over half of the nitrogen (N) excreted from broiler chickens is emitted to the atmosphere before the manure is removed from the barns, resulting in air and water pollution, as well as the loss of a valuable fertilizer resource. The objective of this study was to determine the fertilizer efficiency of N captured from the exhaust air from poultry houses using acid scrubbers. This research was conducted using 24 plots located on a Captina silt loam soil. There were six treatments: (1) unfertilized control, (2) aluminum sulfate (alum) scrubber solution, (3) potassium bisulfate scrubber solution, (4) sodium bisulfate scrubber solution, (5) sulfuric acid scrubber solution and (6) ammonium nitrate fertilizer dissolved in water. There were four replications per treatment in a randomized block design. The scrubber solutions were obtained from acid scrubbers attached to exhaust fans on commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at an application rate equivalent to 112 kg N ha⁻¹. Forage yields were measured five times throughout the growing season. Five months after the fertilizer sources were applied, a rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the potential effects on phosphorus (P) runoff. Forage yields were significantly higher in plots fertilized with scrubber solutions from potassium bisulfate and sodium bisulfate than plots fertilized with scrubber solutions made from alum or sulfuric acid or ammonium nitrate, which were higher than the controls (7.61, 7.46, 6.87, 6.72, 6.45, and 5.12 Mg ha ⁻¹, respectively). Forage N uptake followed similar trends as yields. Phosphorus runoff and water soluble P was significantly lower in plots fertilized with the scrubber solutions made from aluminum sulfate. This study demonstrates that N captured using ammonia scrubbers is as good or possibly better than commercial ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
The Pathology of Bovine Rotavirus Infection in Calves That Confirmed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time RT-PCR
Rotavirus is one of the main etiologies of neonatal diarrhea in bovine calves that causes significant economic loss in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to investigate the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves due to bovine rotavirus infection in south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Rotavirus was identified by using ELISA, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), real-time RT-PCR. We examined 12 dead calves with history of diarrhea during necropsy. Among 12 dead calves, in gross examination, 6 were found with pathological changes in intestine, 5 calves had congestion of small intestine and rest one had no distinct pathological changes. Intestinal contents and/or faecal samples of all dead calves were collected and examined to confirm the presence of bovine rotavirus A using Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Out 12 samples, 5 (42%) samples revealed presence of bovine rotavirus A in three diagnostic tests. The histopathological changes were found almost exclusively limited in the small intestine. The lesions of rotaviral enteritis ranged from slight to moderate shortening (atrophy) of villi in the jejunum and ileum with necrotic crypts. The villi were blunt and covered by immature epithelial cells. Infected cells, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, showed characteristic syncytia and eosinophilc intracytoplasmic inclusion body. The presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in enterocytes is the indication of viral etiology. The presence of rotavirus in the affected tissues and/or lesions was confirmed by three different immunological and molecular tests. The findings of histopathological changes will be helpful in future diagnosis of rotaviral infection in dead calves.
Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia
In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.
Influence of Throat Length and Flow Parameters on a Venturi as an Aerator
The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in water is a key component for determining the health of an aquatic habitat. Decrease in the DO level is sometimes an indicator of deteriorating water quality of the water body and can be corrected by replenishing the DO by artificial means. The artificial addition of oxygen to water; i.e. aeration, can be achieved by using aerators where the air is mixed with water. This can be achieved by both breaking and agitating the water surface, so as to increase the water surface area in contact with air; or by bubbling air through the water body, whereby the positive pressure inside the bubble causes the oxygen to diffuse into the water. Venturi aeration uses the second method where the air is drawn into a flowing stream of water due to Bernoulli’s principle in the form of bubbles. The bubbles travel along with the flowing water, transferring the oxygen from air to water till they reach the water surface and burst. The efficacy of the venturi as an aeration device is primarily dependent on the geometry of the venturi and the flow conditions prevailing inside. In this present study, the diameter and placement of holes in a venturi under different flow conditions was studied in a laboratory to determine the performance of the venturi as an aerator. To evaluate the results, Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR) and Standard Aeration Efficiency (SAE) were calculated and compared in order to analyse their performance. The study involved selecting five different throat lengths of 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm, each having multiple holes of 1 mm diameter at different positions of the throat. The distance of the hole from the start of the throat section, which has been characterised as the effective distance (ED) has been so selected that all the ED’s are different. The ED’s selected for study varied from 2 mm to 46 mm under three different discharges of 1.72 m³/h, 2.02 m³/h and 2.38 m³/h. Firstly, it was observed from the experiments that the venturi performs best when the ED is less. Secondly, it was also observed that both SOTR and SAE are more for higher discharge. Next, it was also observed that increasing the throat length beyond a certain value has a negative effect on the SOTR and SAE. It was also observed that among all the possible combinations the best combination was for the 10 mm throat section with the hole situated just adjacent to the start of the throat section and performing at a high discharge.
Fish Catch Composition from Gobind Sagar Reservoir during Years 2006 to 2012
Gobind Sagar Reservoir has been created in Himachal Pradesh, India (31° 25´ N and 76 ° 25´E) by damming River Sutlej at village Bhakra in 1963. Average water spread area of this reservoir is 10,000 hectare. Fishermen have organized themselves in the form of co-operative societies. Twenty six fisheries co-operative societies were working in Gobind Sagar Reservoir up till year 2012. June and July months were observed as closed season; no fishing was done during this period. Proper record maintaining of fish catch was done at different levels by state fisheries department. Different measures like minimum harvestable size, mesh size regulation and prohibition illegal fishing, etc. were taken for fish conservation. Fishermen were actively involved in the management. Gill nets were used for catching fishes from this reservoir. State fisheries department is realizing 15 percent royalty of the sold fish. Data used in this paper is about fish catch during years 2006 to 2012, was obtained from state fisheries department, Himachal Pradesh. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Sperata seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Tor putitora, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Ctenopharyngodon idella etc. were the fish species exploited for commercial purpose. Total number of individuals of all species caught was 3141236 weighing 5637108.9 kg during years 2006 to 2012. H. molitrix have got introduced accidentally in this reservoir and was making a good share of fish catch in this reservoir. Annual catch of this species was varying between 161279.6 kg, caught in year 2011 and 788030.8 kg caught in year 2009. Total numbers of individuals of C. idella caught were 8966 weighing 64320.2 kg. Catch of Cyprinus carpio was varying between 144826.1 kg caught in year 2006 and 214480.1 kg caught in year 2010. Total catch of Tor putitora was 180263.2 kg during years 2006 to 2012. Total catch of L. dero, S. seenghala and Catla catla remained 100637.4 kg, 75297.8 kg and 561802.9 kg respectively, during years 2006 to 2012. Maximum fish catch was observed during months of August (after observing Closed Season). Maximum catch of exotic carps was from Bhakra area of reservoir which has fewer fluctuations in water levels. Reservoir has been divided into eight beats for administrative purpose. Fish catch was more by co-operative societies operating in the area of reservoir having fewer fluctuations in water level and catch was less by co-operative societies operating in area of more fluctuations in water level. Species wise fish catch by different co-operative societies from their allotted area was studied. This reservoir is one of most scientifically managed reservoirs.
Exploring the Optimum Temperature and Diet for Growth and Gastric Emptying Time of Juvenile Malabar Blood Snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus)
In this study, we analyzed the effects of water temperature and diet on the growth properties and gastric emptying period of juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus) over a 30day experimental period. Fish were collected from a local hatchery of Pulau Ketam, Selangor, Malaysia and immediately transferred to flow-through sea water system and subjected to four different temperatures (22, 26, 30, and 34 °C) and two diets (formulated pellet and shrimp). Body weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, food consumption efficiency, specific growth rate, relative growth rate, daily growth rate, and gastric emptying period were significantly influenced by temperature and diet (P
The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Lungs Induced Tobacco Smoke
The toxic effects of tobacco smoke exposure have been detected in numerous studies. Ellagic acid (EA), (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy [1]-benzopyranol [5,4,3-cde] benzopyran 5,10-dione), a natural phenolic lactone compound, is found in various plant species including pomegranate, grape, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. Similar to the other effective antioxidants, EA can safely interact with the free radicals and reduces oxidative stress through the phenolic ring and hydroxyl components in its structure. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on lung tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. Equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Lung tissues and blood samples were taken. The lung slides were stained by H&E and Masson’s Trichrome methods. Also, galactin-3 stain was applied. Biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium, thickness in interalveolar septum, cytoplasmic vacuolation in some macrophages and galactin-3 positive cells were observed in histological examination of tobacco smoke group. In addition to these findings, hemorrhage in pulmonary interstitium and bronchial lumen was detected in tobacco smoke + corn oil group. Reduced vascular congestion and hemorrhage in pulmoner interstitium and rarely thickness in interalveolar septum were shown in tobacco smoke + EA group. Compared to group-I, group-II GSH level was decreased and MDA level was increased significantly. Nevertheless group-IV GSH level was higher and MDA level was lower than group-II. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the lung tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.
Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke
Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.
The Investigation of Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid against Damage on Neonatal Rat Lung to Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure
This study was carried out to determine the histological and biochemical changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. In our study, 24 six-week old Spraque-Dawley female rats weighing 160 ± 10 g were used (n:7). Rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid) and group IV (alpha lipoic acid). Rats in the group II, group III were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group III. Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group IV. Once after the delivery, all administrations were stopped. On the 7 and 21th days, the seven pups of all groups were decapitated. A portion of the lung was taken and stained with HE, PAS and Masson. In addition to immunohistochemical staining of surfactant protein A, vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase-3, TUNEL method was also used to determine apoptosis. Biochemical analyzes were performed with some part of the lung tissue specimens. In the histological evaluations performed under light microscopy, inflammatory cell increase, hemorrhagic areas, edema, interalveolar septal thickening, alveolar numbers decrease, degeneration of some bronchi and bronchial epithelium, epithelial cells that were fallen into the lumen and hyaline membrane formation were observed in tobacco smoke group. These findings were ameliorated in tobacco smoke + ALA group. Hyaline membrane formation was not detected in this group. The TUNEL positive cell numbers a significant increase was detected in the tobacco smoke group, whereas a significant decrease was detected in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In terms of the immunoreactivity of both SP-A and VEGF, a significant decrease was observed in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant increase was observed in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. Regarding the immunoreactivity of caspase-3, there was a significant increase in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke + ALA. The malondialdehyde levels were determined to be significantly increased in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant decreased in the tobacco smoke + ALA. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities showed a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant increase in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In conclusion, we suggest that the exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy leads to morphological, histopathological and functional changes on lung development by causing oxidative damage in lung tissues of neonatal rats and the maternal use of alpha lipoic acid can provide a protective effect on the neonatal lung development against this oxidative stress originating from tobacco smoke.
The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Liver Induced Tobacco Smoke
Tobacco smokers continuously inhale thousands of carcinogens and free radicals. It is estimated that about 1017 oxidant molecules are present in each puff of tobacco smoke. It is known that smoking has adverse effects on the structure and functions of the liver. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid against tobacco smoke-mediated oxidative stress in the rat liver. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated, and liver tissues were removed. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal area, increased Kuppfer cells were examined in tobacco smoke group and tobacco smoke+ corn oil groups. The results, observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke+corn oil groups, were found significantly decreased in tobacco smoke+EA group. Group-II and group-III MDA levels were significantly higher, and GSH activities were not different than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV MDA level was decreased, and GSH activities was increased significantly. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the liver tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.
The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Heart Induced Tobacco Smoke
One of the common causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is smoking. Moreover, tobacco smoke decreases the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry and increases the tendency for blood clots. Ellagic acid is a powerful antioxidant found especially in red fruits. It was shown to block atherosclerotic process suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on heart tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Heart tissues and blood samples were taken. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion, hyperemic areas, inflammatory cell infiltration and increased connective tissue in the perivascular area were observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke + corn oil groups. Increased connective tissue in the perivascular area, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were decreased in tobacco smoke + EA group. Group-II GSH level was not changed (significantly), CAT, SOD, GPx activities were significantly higher than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx activities were increased, and MDA level was decreased significantly. Group-II and Group-III levels were similar. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the heart tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.
Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Cardiovascular disease which is one of the most common health problems worldwide has crucial importance because of its’ morbidity and mortality rates. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase use L-arginine as a substrate and produce nitric oxide (NO), citrulline and urea, ornithine respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced bioavailability of vasodilator and anti-inflammatory molecule NO. The purpose of the study to assess endothelial function via arginase activity and NO levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study was conducted on 26 patients (14 male, 12 female) undergoing CABG surgery. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before surgery, after the termination and after 24 hours of the surgery. Arginase activity and NO levels measured in collected samples spectrophotometrically. Arginase activity decreased significantly in subjects after the termination of the surgery compared to before surgery data. 24 hours after the surgery there wasn’t any significance in arginase activity as it compared to before surgery and after the termination of the surgery. On the other hand, NO levels increased significantly in the subject after the termination of the surgery. However there was no significant increase in NO levels after 24 hours of the surgery, but there was an insignificant increase compared to before surgery data. The results indicate that after the termination of the surgery vascular and endothelial function improved and after 24 hours of the surgery arginase activity and NO levels returned to normal.
Effects of Turmeric on Uterine Tissue in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High Fructose Diet
Metabolic Syndrome, one of the common metabolic disorder, occurs with co-development of insulin resistance, obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension problems. Insulin resistance appears to play a pathogenic role in the metabolic syndrome. Also, there is a relationship between insulin resistance and infertility as known. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) a polyphenolic chemical is widely used for its coloring, flavoring, and medicinal properties, and exhibits a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we assess the effects of turmeric on rat uterine tissue in metabolic syndrome model induced by high fructose diet. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats weighing 220±20 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) as follows; control, fructose, turmeric, and fructose plus turmeric. Metabolic syndrome was induced by fructose solution 20% (w/v) in tap water, and turmeric (C.Longa) administered at the dose of 80 mg/kg body weight every other day by oral gavage. After the experimental period of 8 weeks, rats were decapitated, serum and uterine tissues were removed. Serum lipid profile, glucose, insülin levels were measured. Uterine tissues were fixed for histological analyzes. The uterine tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) stain, then examined and photographed on a light microscope (Novel N-800Mx20). As a result, fructose consumption effected serum lipids, insulin levels, and insulin resistance significantly. Endometrium and myometrium layers were observed in normal structure in control group of uterine tissues. Perivascular edema, peri glandular fibrosis, and inflammatory cell increase were detected in fructose group. Sections of the fructose plus turmeric group showed a significant improvement in findings when compared to the fructose group. Turmeric group cell structures were observed similar with the control group. These results demonstrated that high-fructose consumption could change the structure of the uterine tissue. On the other hand, turmeric administration has beneficial effects on uterine tissue at that dose and duration when administered with fructose.
Population and Age Structure of the Goby Stigmatogobius pleurostigma in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Stigmatogobius pleurostigma is a commercial fish being caught increasingly in the Mekong Delta. Although it plays an important role for food supply, little is known about this species including morphology, distribution and growth pattern. Meanwhile, its population and age structure is unknown. The present study was conducted in the Mekong Delta to provide new data on population parameters of this goby species. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞= 8.6 cm, K = 0.83 yr⁻¹, and t0 = -0.07 yr⁻¹ basing on length frequency data analysis of 601 individuals. The fish total length at first capture was 3.8 cm; and fishing, natural and total mortalities of the fish population were 2.31 yr⁻¹, 1.17 yr⁻¹, and 3.48 yr⁻¹ respectively. The maximum fish yield (Eₘₐₓ), economic yield (E₀.₁) and yield of 50% reduction of exploitation (E₅₀) rates were 0.704, 0.555 and 0.335 based on the relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses. The fish longevity was 3.61 yr, and growth performance was 1.79. Three fish age groups were recorded in this study (0+, 1+ and 2+). The species is a potential aquaculture candidate because of its high growth parameter. This goby stock was overexploited in the Mekong Delta as its exploitation rate (E=0.34) was higher than E₅₀ (0.335). The mesh size of gillnets should be increased and avoid catching fish in June, recruitment time, for future sustainable fishery management.
An Alternative Semi-Defined Larval Diet for Rearing of Sand Fly Species Phlebotomus Argentipes in Laboratory
Phlebotomus argentipes is an established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian subcontinent. Laboratory colonization of Sand flies is imperative in research on vectors, which requires a proper diet for their larvae and adult growth that ultimately affects their survival and fecundity. In most of the laboratories, adult Sand flies are reared on rabbit blood feeding/artificial blood feeding and their larvae on fine grinded rabbit faeces as a sole source of food. Rabbit faeces are unhygienic, difficult to handle, high mites infestation as well as owing to bad odour which creates menacing to human users ranging from respiratory problems to eye infection and most importantly it does not full fill all the nutrients required for proper growth and development. It is generally observed that the adult emergence is very low in comparison to egg hatched, which may be due to insufficient food nutrients provided to growing larvae. To check the role of food nutrients on larvae survival and adult emergence, a high protein rich artificial diet for sand fly larvae were used in this study. The composition of artificial diet to be tested includes fine grinded (9 gm each) Rice, Pea nuts & Soyabean balls. These three food ingredients are rich source of all essential amino acids along with carbohydrate and minerals which is essential for proper metabolism and growth. In this study artificial food was found significantly more effective for larval development and adult emergence than rabbit faeces alone (P value >0.05). The weight of individual larvae was also found higher in test pots than the control. This study suggest that protein plays an important role in insect larvae development and adding carbohydrate will also enhances the fecundity of insects larvae.
Species Profiling of Scarab Beetles with the Help of Light Trap in Western Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand
White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), locally known as Kurmula, Pagra, Chinchu, is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India. Various crops like cereals (up land paddy, wheat, and barley), vegetables (capsicum, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, carrot etc) and some pulse (like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram) are grown with limited availability of primary resources. Among the various limitations in successful cultivation of these crops, white grub has been proved a major constraint in for all crops grown in hilly area. The losses incurred due to white grubs are huge in case of commercial crops like sugarcane, groundnut, potato, maize and upland rice. Moreover, it has been proved major constraint in potato production in mid and higher hills of India. Adults emerge in May-June following the onset of monsoon and thereafter defoliate the apple, apricot, plum, and walnut during night while 2nd and 3rd instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non cultivated crops from August to January. Survey was conducted in hilly (Pauri and Tehri) as well as plain area (Haridwar district) of Uttarakhand state. Collection of beetle was done from various locations from August to September of five consecutive years with the help of light trap and directly from host plant. The grub was also collected by excavating one square meter area from different locations and reared in laboratory to find out adult. During the collection, the diseased or dead cadaver were also collected and brought in the laboratory and identified the causal organisms. Total 25 species of white grub was identified out of which Holotrichia longipennis, Anomala dimidiata, Holotrichia lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis, Brahmina sp. make complex problem in different area of Uttarakhand where they cause severe damage to various crops. During the survey, it was observed that white grubs beetles have variation in preference of host plant, even in choice of fruit and leaves of host plant. It was observed that, a white grub species, which identified as Lepidiota mansueta Burmeister., was causing severe havoc to sugarcane crop grown in major sugarcane growing belt of Haridwar district. The study also revealed that Bacillus cereus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis are major disease causing agents in immature stage of white grub under rain-fed condition of Uttarakhand which caused 15.55 to 21.63 percent natural mortality of grubs with an average of 18.91 percent. However, among the microorganisms, B. cereus found to be significantly more efficient (7.03 percent mortality) then the entomopathogenic fungi (3.80 percent mortality) and nematodes (3.20 percent mortality).