International Science Index

International Journal of Architectural and Environmental Engineering

844
76749
Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context
Authors:
Abstract:
A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.
843
69217
Urban Meetings: Graphic Analysis of the Public Space in a Cultural Building from São Paulo
Abstract:
Currently, studies evidence that our cities are portraits of social relations. In the midst of so many segregations, cultural buildings emerge as a place to assemble collective activities and expressions. Through theater, exhibitions, educational workshops, libraries, the architecture approaches human relations and seeks to propose meeting places. The purpose of this research is to deepen the discussions about the contributions of cultural buildings in the use of the spaces of the contemporary city, based on the data and measure collected in the master's research in progress. The graphic analysis of the insertion of contemporary cultural buildings seeks to highlight the social use of space. The urban insertions of contemporary cultural buildings in the city of São Paulo (Brazil) will be analyzed to understand the relations between the architectural form and its audience. The collected data describe a dynamic of flows and the permanence in the use of these spaces, indicating the contribution of the cultural buildings, associated with artistic production, in the dynamics of urban spaces and the social modifications of their milieu. Among the case studies, the research in development is based on the registration and graphic analysis of the Praça das Artes (2012) building located in the historical central region of the city, which after a long period of great degradation undergoes a current redevelopment. The choice of this building was based on four parameters, both on the architectural scale and on the urban scale: urban insertion, local impact, cultural production and a mix of uses. For the analysis will be applied two methodologies of graphic analysis, one with diagrams accompanied by texts and another with the active analysis for open space projects using complementary graphic methodologies, with maps, plants, info-graphics, perspectives, time-lapse videos and analytical tables. This research aims to reinforce the debates between the methodologies of form-use spaces and visual synthesis applied in cultural buildings, in order that new projects can structure public spaces as catalysts for social use, generating improvements in the daily life of its users and in the cities where they are inserted.
842
77653
The Effect of the Archeological and Architectural Nature of the Cities on the Design of Public Transportation Vehicles
Abstract:
Various Islamic, Coptic and Jewish archeological places are located in many Egyptian neighborhoods such as Alsayeda zainab, Aldarb Alahmar, Algammaleya and many other in which they are daily exposed to a great traffic intensity causing vibrations. Vibrations could be stated as one of the most important challenges that face the archeological buildings and threaten their survival. The impact of vibrations varies according to the nature of the soil, nature and building conditions, how far the source of vibration is and the period of exposure. Traffic vibrations could be also stated as one of the most common types of vibrations having the greatest impact on buildings and archaeological installations. These vibrations result from the way that the vehicles act with different types of roads which vary according to the shape, nature, and type of obstacles. Other elements concerning the vehicle itself such as speed, weight, and load have a direct impact on the vibrations resulting from the vehicle movement that couldn't be neglected. The research aims to determine some of the requirements that must be observed when designing the public means of transport operating in the archaeological areas, in order to preserve the archaeological nature of the place. The research concludes that light weight slow motion vehicles should be used (25-50 km/h at maximum) having a multi-leaf steel spring suspension system instead of having an air-bag one should be used in order to reduce generated vibrations that could destroy the archeological buildings. Isolation layers could be used in the engine chamber in order to reduce the resulting noise causing vibrations. Electrically operated engines that use solar photovoltaic cells as a source of electricity could be used instead of gas ones in order to reduce the resulting engine noise.
841
76963
Implementation of Ecological and Energy-Efficient Building Concepts
Abstract:
A relatively large percentage of energy and resource consumption occurs in the building sector. This concerns the production of building materials, the construction of buildings and also the energy consumption during the use phase. Therefore, the overall objective of this EU LIFE project “LIFE Cycle Habitation” (LIFE13 ENV/AT/000741) is to demonstrate innovative building concepts that significantly reduce CO₂emissions, mitigate climate change and contain a minimum of grey energy over their entire life cycle. The project is being realised with the contribution of the LIFE financial instrument of the European Union. The ultimate goal is to design and build prototypes for carbon-neutral and “LIFE cycle”-oriented residential buildings and make energy-efficient settlements the standard of tomorrow in line with the EU 2020 objectives. To this end, a resource and energy-efficient building compound is being built in Böheimkirchen, Lower Austria, which includes 6 living units and a community area as well as 2 single family houses with a total usable floor surface of approximately 740 m². Different innovative straw bale construction types (load bearing and pre-fabricated non loadbearing modules) together with a highly innovative energy-supply system, which is based on the maximum use of thermal energy for thermal energy services, are going to be implemented. Therefore only renewable resources and alternative energies are used to generate thermal as well as electrical energy. This includes the use of solar energy for space heating, hot water and household appliances like dishwasher or washing machine, but also a cooking place for the community area operated with thermal oil as heat transfer medium on a higher temperature level. Solar collectors in combination with a biomass cogeneration unit and photovoltaic panels are used to provide thermal and electric energy for the living units according to the seasonal demand. The building concepts are optimised by support of dynamic simulations. A particular focus is on the production and use of modular prefabricated components and building parts made of regionally available, highly energy-efficient, CO₂-storing renewable materials like straw bales. The building components will be produced in collaboration by local SMEs that are organised in an efficient way. The whole building process and results are monitored and prepared for knowledge transfer and dissemination including a trial living in the residential units to test and monitor the energy supply system and to involve stakeholders into evaluation and dissemination of the applied technologies and building concepts. The realised building concepts should then be used as templates for a further modular extension of the settlement in a second phase.
840
78089
Baseline Study for Performance Evaluation of New Generation Solar Insulation Films for Windows: A Test Bed in Singapore
Abstract:
Due to the solar geometry of Singapore, which lay within the geographical classification of equatorial tropics, there is a great deal of thermal energy transfer to the inside of the buildings. With changing face of economic development of cities like Singapore, more and more buildings are designed to be lightweight using transparent construction materials such as glass. Increased demand for energy efficiency and reduced cooling load demands make it important for building designer and operators to adopt new and non-invasive technologies to achieve building energy efficiency targets. A real time performance evaluation study was undertaken at School of Art Design and Media (SADM), Singapore, to determine the efficiency potential of a new generation solar insulation film. The building has a window to wall ratio (WWR) of 100% and is fitted with high performance (low emissivity) double glazed units. The empirical data collected was then used to calibrate a computerized simulation model to understand the annual energy consumption based on existing conditions (baseline performance). It was found that the correlations of various parameters such as solar irradiance, solar heat flux, and outdoor air-temperatures quantification are significantly important to determine the cooling load during a particular period of testing.
839
76896
Geodesign Application for Bio-Swale Design: A Data-Driven Design Approach for a Case Site in Ottawa Street North in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Abstract:
Changing climate patterns are resulting in increased in storm severity, challenging traditional methods of managing stormwater runoff. This research compares a system of bioswales to existing curb and gutter infrastructure in a post-industrial streetscape of Hamilton, Ontario. Using the geodesign process, including rule-based set parameters and an integrated approach combining geospatial information with stakeholder input, a section of Ottawa St. North was modelled to show how green infrastructure can ease the burden on aging, combined sewer systems. Qualitative data was gathered from residents of the neighbourhood through field notes, and quantitative geospatial data through GIS and site analysis. Parametric modelling was used to generate multiple design scenarios, each visualizing resulting impacts on stormwater runoff along with their calculations. The selected design scenarios offered both an aesthetically pleasing urban bioswale street-scape system while minimizing and controlling stormwater runoff. Interactive maps, videos and the 3D model were presented for stakeholder comment via ESRI’s (Environmental System Research Institute) web-scene. The results of the study demonstrate powerful tools that can assist landscape architects in designing, collaborating and communicating stormwater strategies.
838
76347
Research on the Updating Strategy of Public Space in Small Towns in Zhejiang Province under the Background of New-Style Urbanization
Abstract:
Small towns are the most basic administrative institutions in our country, which are connected with cities and rural areas. Small towns play an important role in promoting local urban and rural economic development, providing the main public services and maintaining social stability in social governance. With the vigorous development of small towns and the transformation of industrial structure, the changes of social structure, spatial structure, and lifestyle are lagging behind, causing that the spatial form and landscape style do not belong to both cities and rural areas, and seriously affecting the quality of people’s life space and environment. The rural economy in Zhejiang Province has started, the society and the population are also developing in relative stability. In September 2016, Zhejiang Province set out the 'Technical Guidelines for Comprehensive Environmental Remediation of Small Towns in Zhejiang Province,' so as to comprehensively implement the small town comprehensive environmental remediation with the main content of strengthening the plan and design leading, regulating environmental sanitation, urban order and town appearance. In November 2016, Huzhou City started the comprehensive environmental improvement of small towns, strived to use three years to significantly improve the 115 small towns, as well as to create a number of high quality, distinctive and beautiful towns with features of 'clean and livable, rational layout, industrial development, poetry and painting style'. This paper takes Meixi Town, Zhangwu Town and Sanchuan Village in Huzhou City as the empirical cases, analyzes the small town public space by applying the relative theory of actor-network and space syntax. This paper also analyzes the spatial composition in actor and social structure elements, as well as explores the relationship of actor’s spatial practice and public open space by combining with actor-network theory. This paper introduces the relevant theories and methods of spatial syntax, carries out research analysis and design planning analysis of small town spaces from the perspective of quantitative analysis. And then, this paper proposes the effective updating strategy for the existing problems in public space. Through the planning and design in the building level, the dissonant factors produced by various spatial combination of factors and between landscape design and urban texture during small town development will be solved, inhabitant quality of life will be promoted, and town development vitality will be increased.
837
76352
Co-Participation: Towards the Sustainable Micro-Rural Complex in China
Abstract:
A new business mode called rural complex is proposed by the China’s government to promote the development the economy in the rural area. However, for the sake of current national conditions including the great number of labor farmers owning the small scale farmlands and the uncertain enthusiasm from the enterprises, it is challenging to develop the big scale rural complex. To react to the dilemmas, this paper puts forward the micro-rural complex to boost the small scale farms by co-participation from a bottom-up mode. By analyzing the potential opportunities to find the suitable mode, exploring the interdisciplinary and interdepartmental co-participation way beyond architecture design and spatial planning between different actors, the paper tries to find a complete process towards the sustainable micro-rural complex and conducts an ongoing practice to optimize it, to bring new insights and reference to the rural development. According to the transformation of the economy, the micro-rural complex will develop into two phases, both of which can be discussed in three parts, the economic mode, the spatial support, and the Cooperating mechanism. The first stage is the agriculture co-participation based on the rise of Community supported agriculture (CSA) in which the consumers buy the products planted in an organic way from the farmers directly with a higher price to support the small-scale agriculture and overcome the food safety issues. The following stage sets up the agritourism catering the citizens with the restaurants, inns and other tourist service facilities to be planned and designed. In the whole process, the interdisciplinary co-participation will play an important role to provide the guidelines and consultation from the agronomists, architects and rural planners to the farmers. This mode has been applied to an on-going farm project, from which to explore the mode in a more practical way. In conclusion, the micro-rural complex aims at creating a balanced urban-rural relationship by co-participation taking advantage of the different actors. The spatial development is considered from the economic mode and social organization. The integration of the mode based on the small-scale agriculture will contribute to a sustainable growth and realize the long run development in the rural area.
836
77543
The Eco-Efficient Construction: A Review of Embodied Energy in Building Materials
Abstract:
The building construction industry consumes a large amount of resources and energy, both during construction (embodied energy) and during the operational phase (operating energy). This paper presents a review of the literature on low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings. The embodied energy comprises the energy consumed during the extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and demolition of building materials. While designing a nearly zero energy building, it is necessary to choose and use materials, components, and technologies that allow to reduce the consumption of energy and also to reduce the emissions in the atmosphere during all the Life Cycle Assessment phases. The appropriate choice of building materials can contribute decisively to reduce the energy consumption of the building sector. The increasing worries for the environmental impact of construction materials are witnessed by a lot of studies. The mentioned worries have brought again the attention towards natural materials. The use of more sustainable construction materials and construction techniques represent a major contribution to the eco-efficiency of the construction industry and thus to a more sustainable development.
835
77746
A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran (630 - 1630 A.D.)
Abstract:
Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and only for decorations and beauty, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas. Also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.
834
76955
Sustainable and Aesthetic Features of Traditional Architectures in Central Part of Iran
Abstract:
Iran is one of the oldest countries with traditional culture in the world. All over the history Iranians had traditional architectural designs, which were at the same time sustainable, ecological, functional and environmental consistent. These human scale architectures were built for maximum use, comfort, climate adaptation with available resources and techniques. Climate variability of the country caused developing of variety design methods. More of these methods such as windcatchers in Yazd City or Panam (Insulation) were scientific solutions at the same time. Renewable energy resources were used in these methods that featured in them. While climate and ecological issues were dominant parts of these traditional designs, aesthetic and beauty issues were not ignored. Conformity with the community’s culture caused more compact designs that the visual aesthetics of them can be seen inside of them. Different organizations of space were used for these visual aesthetic issues inside the houses as well as historical urban designs. For example dry and hot climates in central parts of the country designed with centralized organization. Most central parts of these designs functioned as a courtyard for temperate the air in the summer. This paper will give summary descriptive information about traditional Iranian architectural style by figures all around the country with different climate conditions, while focus of the paper is traditional architectural design of the central part of the country, with dry and hot climate condition. This information may be useful for contemporary architectural designs, which are designed without noticing to the vernacular condition and caused cities look like each other.
833
74169
Gap between Knowledge and Behaviour in Recycling Domestic Solid Waste: Evidence from Manipal, India
Abstract:
In the educational town of Manipal (located in southern India) households dispose their wastes without segregation. Mixed wastes (organic, inorganic and hazardous items) are collected either by private collectors or by the local municipal body in trucks and taken to dump yards. These collectors select certain recyclables from the collected trash and sell them to scrap merchants to earn some extra money. Rag pickers play a major role in picking up card board boxes, glass bottles and milk sachets from dump yards and public areas and scrap iron from construction sites for recycling. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (A Clean India), the local municipal administration is taking efforts to ensure segregation of domestic waste at source. With this in mind, each household in a residential area in Manipal was given two buckets – for wet and dry wastes (wet waste referred to organic waste while dry waste included recyclable and hazardous items). A study was conducted in this locality covering a cluster of 145 households to assess the residents’ knowledge of recyclable, organic and hazardous items commonly disposed by households. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the extent to which the residents actually dispose their wastes appropriately. Questionnaires were self-administered to a member of each household with the assistance of individuals speaking the local language whenever needed. Respondents’ knowledge of whether an item was organic, inorganic or hazardous was captured through a questionnaire containing a list of 50 common items. Their behaviour was captured by asking how they disposed these items. Results show that more than 70% of respondents are aware that banana and orange peels, potato skin, egg shells and dried leaves are organic; similarly, more than 70% of them consider newspapers, notebook and printed paper are recyclable. Less than 65% of respondents are aware that plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are recyclable. However, the results of the respondents’ recycling behaviour is less impressive. Fewer than 35% of respondents recycle card board boxes, milk sachets and glass bottles. Unfortunately, since plastic items like plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are not accepted by scrap merchants, they are not recycled. This study shows that the local municipal authorities must find ways to recycle plastic into products, alternate fuel etc.
832
77851
Energy Efficiency of Existing Buildings in Hot and Dry Climate with Reference to the City of Riyadh
Abstract:
The issue of energy conservation is becoming more critical and alarming people globally. Buildings are responsible for considerable amount of heat consumption for much daily use such as heating and cooling. One of the most important aspects to achieve the vision of Saudi Arabia 2030 is to provide more energy efficient buildings which consume less energy. Most of research carried out aiming to improve building which is designed from the first stage. However, the dominant amount of energy is consumed by the exciting buildings which are built without guide for energy efficiency. The aim of this research is to provide solutions for building which have been built, and try to minimise the amount of energy consumed. The research will use one of the most powerful energy simulations (TAS EDSL) which is used globally to predict energy efficiency in buildings. In addition to that, the research will focus on the buildings which are located in the microclimate of Riyadh. It is expected that the size of glazing system is the leading variable which can be modified in the exciting buildings.
831
75777
An Unusual Manifestation of Spirituality: Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki
Abstract:
In both urban design and architecture, the primary goal is considered to be looking for ways in which people feel and think about space and place. Humans, in general, see a place as security and space as freedom and feel attached to place and long for space. Contemporary urban design manifests itself by addressing basic physical and psychological human needs. Not much attention is paid to transcendence. There seems to be a gap in the hierarchy of human needs. Usually, social aspects of public space are addressed through urban design. More personal and intimately scaled needs of an individual are neglected. How does built form contribute to an individual’s growth, contemplation, and exploration? In other words, a greater meaning in the immediate environment. Architects love to talk about meaning, poetics, attachment and other ethereal aspects of space that are not visible attributes of places. This paper aims at describing spirituality through built form with a personal experience of Kamppi Chapel of Helsinki. Experience covers various modes through which a person unfolds or constructs reality. Perception, sensation, emotion, and thought can be counted as for these modes. To experience is to get to know. What can be known is a construct of experience. Feelings and thoughts about space and place are very complex in human beings. They grow out of life experiences. The author had the chance of visiting Kamppi Chapel in April 2017, out of which the experience grew. The Kamppi Chapel is located on the South side of the busy Narinnka Square in central Helsinki. It offers a place to quiet down and compose oneself in a most lively urban space. With its curved wooden facade, the small building looks more like a museum than a chapel. It can be called a museum for contemplation. With its gently shaped interior, it embraces visitors and shields them from the hustle bustle of the city outside. Places of worship in all faiths signify sacred power. The author, having origins in a part of the world where domes and minarets dominate the cityscape, was impressed by the size and the architectural visibility of the Chapel. Anyone born and trained in such a tradition shares the inherent values and psychological mechanisms of spirituality, sacredness and the modest realities of their environment. Spirituality in all cultural traditions has not been analyzed and reinterpreted in new conceptual frameworks. Fundamentalists may reject this positivist attitude, but Kamppi Chapel as it stands does not look like it has a say like “I’m a model to be followed”. It just faces the task of representing a religious facility in an urban setting largely shaped by modern urban planning, which seems to the author as looking for a new definition of individual status. The quest between the established and the new is the demand for modern efficiency versus dogmatic rigidity. The architecture here has played a very promising and rewarding role for spirituality. The designers have been the translators for human desire for better life and aesthetic environment for an optimal satisfaction of local citizens and the visitors alike.
830
76224
Rethinking Urban Voids: An Investigation beneath the Kathipara Flyover, Chennai into a Transit Hub by Adaptive Utilization of Space
Authors:
Abstract:
Urbanization and pace of urbanization have increased tremendously in last few decades. More towns are now getting converted into cities. Urbanization trend is seen all over the world but is becoming most dominant in Asia. Today, the scale of urbanization in India is so huge that Indian cities are among the fastest-growing in the world, including Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Delhi, and Mumbai. Urbanization remains a single predominant factor that is continuously linked to the destruction of urban green spaces. With reference to Chennai as a case study, which is suffering from rapid deterioration of its green spaces, this paper sought to fill this gap by exploring key factors aside urbanization that is responsible for the destruction of green spaces. The paper relied on a research approach and triangulated data collection techniques such as interviews, focus group discussion, personal observation and retrieval of archival data. It was observed that apart from urbanization, problem of ownership of green space lands, low priority to green spaces, poor maintenance, enforcement of development controls, wastage of underpass spaces, and uncooperative attitudes of the general public, play a critical role in the destruction of urban green spaces. Therefore the paper narrows down to a point, that for a city to have a proper sustainable urban green space, broader city development plans are essential. Though rapid urbanization is an indicator of positive development, it is also accompanied by a host of challenges. Chennai lost a lot of greenery, as the city urbanized rapidly that led to a steep fall in vegetation cover. Environmental deterioration will be the big price we pay if Chennai continues to grow at the expense of greenery. Soaring skyscrapers, multistoried complexes, gated communities, and villas, frame the iconic skyline of today’s Chennai city which reveals that we overlook the importance of our green cover, which is important to balance our urban and lung spaces. Chennai, with a clumped landscape at the center of the city, is predicted to convert 36% of its total area into urban areas by 2026. One major issue is that a city designed and planned in isolation creates underused spaces all around the cities which are of negligence. These urban voids are dead, underused, unused spaces in the cities that are formed due to inefficient decision making, poor land management, and poor coordination. Urban voids have huge potential of creating a stronger urban fabric, exploited as public gathering spaces, pocket parks or plazas or just enhance public realm, rather than dumping of debris and encroachments. Flyovers need to justify their existence themselves by being more than just traffic and transport solutions. The vast, unused space below the Kathipara flyover is a case in point. This flyover connects three major routes: Tambaram, Koyambedu, and Adyar. This research will focus on the concept of urban voids, how these voids under the flyovers, can be used for place making process, how this space beneath flyovers which are neglected, can be a part of the urban realm through urban design and landscaping.
829
77485
Guiding Urban Development in a Traditional Neighbourhood: Case Application of Kolkata
Abstract:
Urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of cities is undergoing a sea change due to imposition of irregular development patterns on a predominantly inclusive urban fabric. In recent times, traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata have experienced irregular urban development which has resulted in transformation of its immediate urban character. The goal is to study and analyse impact of new urban developments within traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata and establish development guidelines to balance the old with the new. Various cities predominantly in third world countries are also experiencing similar development patterns in their traditional neighbourhoods. Existing literature surveys of development patterns in such neighbourhoods have established 9 major parameters viz. edge, movement, node, landmark, size-density, pattern-grain-texture, open spaces, urban spaces, urban form and views-vistas of the neighbourhood. To evaluate impact of urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata, 3 different areas have been chronologically selected based on their settlement patterns. Parameters established through literature surveys have been applied to the selected areas to study and analyse the existing patterns of development. The main sources of this study included extensive on-site surveys, academic archive, census data, organisational records and informational websites. Applying the established parameters, 5 major conclusions were derived. Firstly, it was found that pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods of the city were becoming more car-centric. This has resulted in loss of interactive and social spaces which defined the cultural heritage of Kolkata. Secondly, the urban pattern which was composed of dense and compact fabric is gradually losing its character due to incorporation of new building typologies. Thirdly, the new building typologies include gated communities with private open spaces which is a stark departure from the existing built typology. However, these open spaces have not contributed in creation of inclusive public places for the community which are a significant part of such heritage neighbourhood precincts. Fourthly, commercial zones that primarily developed along major access routes have now infiltrated within these neighbourhoods. Gated communities do not favour formation of on-street commercial activities generating haphazard development patterns. Lastly, individual residential buildings that reflected Indo-saracenic and Neo-gothic architectural styles are converting into multi-storeyed residential apartments. As a result, the axis that created a definite visual identity for a neighbourhood is progressively following an irregular pattern. Thus, uniformity of the old skyline is gradually becoming inconsistent. The major issue currently is threat caused by irregular urban development to heritage zones and buildings of traditional neighbourhoods. Streets, lanes, courtyards, open spaces and buildings of old neighbourhoods imparted a unique cultural identity to the city that is disappearing with emerging urban development patterns. It has been concluded that specific guidelines for urban development should be regulated primarily based on existing urban form of traditional neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhood development strategies should be formulated for various cities of third world countries to control irregular developments thereby balancing heritage and development.
828
73583
The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer-Based Analysis of Form and Structure
Abstract:
While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.
827
73845
Disaster Mitigation from an Analysis of a Condemned Building Erected over Collapsible Clay Soil in Brazil
Abstract:
Differential settlement of foundations is a serious pathology in buildings that put at risk lives and property. A common reason for the occurrence of this specific pathology in central Brazil is the presence of collapsible clay, a typical soil in the region. In this study, the foundation of a condemned building erected above this soil is analyzed. The aim is to prevent problems in new constructions, to predict which buildings may be subjected to damages, and to make possible a more precise treatment in less advanced differential settlements observed in the buildings of the vicinity, which includes a hospital, a Military School, an indoor sporting arena, the Police Academy, and the Military Police Headquarters. The methodology consists of visual inspection, photographic report of the main pathologies, analysis of the existing foundations, determination of the soil properties, the study of the cracking level and assessment of structural failure risk of the building. The findings show that the presence of water weaken the soil structure on which the foundation rest, being the main cause of the pathologic settlement, indicating that even in a one store building it was necessary to consider deeper digging, other categories of foundations, and more elaborated and detailed foundation plans when the soil presents this behavior.
826
75268
Characterization of Thin Woven Composites Used in Printed Circuit Boards by Combining Numerical and Experimental Approaches
Abstract:
Reliability of electronic devices has always been of highest interest for Aero-MIL and space applications. In any electronic device, Printed Circuit Board (PCB), providing interconnection between components, is a key for reliability. During the last decades, PCB technologies evolved to sustain and/or fulfill increased original equipment manufacturers requirements and specifications, higher densities and better performances, faster time to market and longer lifetime, newer material and mixed buildups. From the very beginning of the PCB industry up to recently, qualification, experiments and trials, and errors were the most popular methods to assess system (PCB) reliability. Nowadays OEM, PCB manufacturers and scientists are working together in a close relationship in order to develop predictive models for PCB reliability and lifetime. To achieve that goal, it is fundamental to characterize precisely base materials (laminates, electrolytic copper, …), in order to understand failure mechanisms and simulate PCB aging under environmental constraints by means of finite element method for example. The laminates are woven composites and have thus an orthotropic behaviour. The in-plane properties can be measured by combining classical uniaxial testing and digital image correlation. Nevertheless, the out-of-plane properties cannot be evaluated due to the thickness of the laminate (a few hundred of microns). It has to be noted that the knowledge of the out-of-plane properties is fundamental to investigate the lifetime of high density printed circuit boards. A homogenization method combining analytical and numerical approaches has been developed in order to obtain the complete elastic orthotropic behaviour of a woven composite from its precise 3D internal structure and its experimentally measured in-plane elastic properties. Since the mechanical properties of the resin surrounding the fibres are unknown, an inverse method is proposed to estimate it. The methodology has been applied to one laminate used in hyperfrequency spatial applications in order to get its elastic orthotropic behaviour at different temperatures in the range [-55°C; +125°C]. Next; numerical simulations of a plated through hole in a double sided PCB are performed. Results show the major importance of the out-of-plane properties and the temperature dependency of these properties on the lifetime of a printed circuit board. Acknowledgements—The support of the French ANR agency through the Labcom program ANR-14-LAB7-0003-01, support of CNES, Thales Alenia Space and Cimulec is acknowledged.
825
78330
Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Externally Bonded Reinforcement under Two Independent Explosions
Abstract:
This paper aims to investigate the blast response of RC slabs retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) under multiple explosions. In order to achieve this objective, four simply supported slabs were tested using an explosive driven shock tube (EDST). The results show that EBR increases the flexural capacity of the slabs under blast loading. A reduction of 26% and 40% are observed for the slabs retrofitted with 2 CFRP strips and 4 CFRP strips respectively. Moreover, the propagation of the blast wave through the concrete can cause the debonding of the CFRP strips when the normal stresses of the blast wave are higher than the bond strength between the concrete and the CFRP strips.
824
76564
Revisiting Hospital Ward Design Basics for Sustainable Family Integration
Abstract:
The concept of space and function forms the bedrock for spatial configuration in architectural design. Thus, the effectiveness and functionality of an architectural product depend on their cordial relationship. This applies to all buildings especially to a hospital ward setting designed to accommodate various complex and diverse functions. Health care facilities design especially, an inpatient setting is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs, particularly, response to culture and the need to provide for patient families’ presence and participation. The spatial configuration of hospital ward setting in developing countries has no consideration for the patient’s families despite the significant role they play in promoting restoration. Attempts to integrate facilities for the patient’s families have always been challenging especially in developing countries like Nigeria where accommodation for inpatients is predominantly in an open ward system. In addition, the situation is compounded by culture which significant aspect dictating the healthcare practices in Africa. Therefore, achieving such a hospital ward setting that is patient and family centered requires careful assessment of family care actions and transaction spaces so as to arrive at an evidence based solution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify how the hospital ward spaces can be reconfigured to provide for sustainable family Integration. In achieving this aim, a qualitative approach using principles of behavioral mapping was employed in male and female medical wards of Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria. The data obtained was analysed using classical and comparative content analysis. Patient families have been found to be a critical component of hospital ward design that cannot be undermined. Accordingly, besides, open yards, corridors, and foyers have been identified as patient families’ transaction spaces that require design attention. Arriving at sustainable family integration can be achieved by revisiting the design requirements of the family transaction spaces based on the findings in order to avoid the rowdiness of the wards and uncoordinated sprawl.
823
77144
An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore
Abstract:
Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.
822
76394
Interpreting the Usage of Architectural Diagrams and Their Effects during the Design Process
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Abstract:
Diagrams are the essential representations for thinking, problem defining, problem solving and for expression and communication in the design disciplines. Data visualization studies use diagrams to abstract the information into some schematic and relational forms. They are two-dimensional, symbolic representations of information according to some visualization technique and one of the expressionist way of the data representation. We can call the diagrams as the modern architectures on their own. They have their own voice; they store a compressed data inside their graphical expressions. When they have more data, they become more informative and display them better. Considering diagrams as the placeholders and the 'engines' that organize the design period, communicate and represent the data which they store inside by compressing, abstracting, metaphoring and emphasizing. Also, a diagram can be the product by itself. In the article, the usage of architectural diagrams throughout analysis and design periods will be discussed. Several categories of architectural diagrams will be examined -with the purpose of finding these answers: How designers and architects think and approach in the design process? How they abstract the data and make interrelations? How do conceptual thinking ways relate to conceptual diagrams? Personal design diagrams will be shown as an individual experience, and they will be correlated to the design steps and abstract thinking methods. Sometimes, diagrams can take us to the finalized objects, and they put great influence on to the design process. Because they are the compressed information nodes, so they can serve as a concrete design key for the last object. But sometimes the process doesn’t finish with a concrete object. It just stays as a starting informational point, or it can take you to the different perspectives, much farther away from your first point of view. Although it does not end with an object, it explores different perspectives, brings new openings, layers about the space, time, conditions to the project or subject. Therefore. They can either take you to a final destination, or they can end up with new beginnings – new point of views and starting points.
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77102
Analysis of Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings Using Computer Simulation: A Case Study in Federal University of Parana, Brazil
Abstract:
A prerequisite of any building design is to provide security to the users, taking the climate and its physical and physical-geometrical variables into account. It is also important to highlight the relevance of the right material elements, which arise between the person and the agent, and must provide improved thermal comfort conditions and low environmental impact. Furthermore, technology is constantly advancing, as well as computational simulations for projects, and they should be used to develop sustainable building and to provide higher quality of life for its users. In relation to comfort, the more satisfied the building users are, the better their intellectual performance will be. Based on that, the study of thermal comfort in educational buildings is of relative relevance, since the thermal characteristics in these environments are of vital importance to all users. Moreover, educational buildings are large constructions and when they are poorly planned and executed they have negative impacts to the surrounding environment, as well as to the user satisfaction, throughout its whole life cycle. In this line of thought, to evaluate university classroom conditions, it was accomplished a detailed case study on the thermal comfort situation at Federal University of Parana (UFPR). The main goal of the study is to perform a thermal analysis in three classrooms at UFPR, in order to address the subjective and physical variables that influence thermal comfort inside the classroom. For the assessment of the subjective components, a questionnaire was applied in order to evaluate the reference for the local thermal conditions. Regarding the physical variables, it was carried out on-site measurements, which consist of performing measurements of air temperature and air humidity, both inside and outside the building, as well as meteorological variables, such as wind speed and direction, solar radiation and rainfall, collected from a weather station. Then, a computer simulation based on results from the EnergyPlus software to reproduce air temperature and air humidity values of the three classrooms studied was conducted. The EnergyPlus outputs were analyzed and compared with the on-site measurement results to be possible to come out with a conclusion related to the local thermal conditions. The methodological approach included in the study allowed a distinct perspective in an educational building to better understand the classroom thermal performance, as well as the reason of such behavior. Finally, the study induces a reflection about the importance of thermal comfort for educational buildings and propose thermal alternatives for future projects, as well as a discussion about the significant impact of using computer simulation on engineering solutions, in order to improve the thermal performance of UFPR’s buildings.
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73149
Critical Temperature Evaluation for Steel Sway Frame Exposed to Fire
Abstract:
Three alternative design approaches to estimate the critical temperature of a steel sway frame load-bearing structure when exposed to fire are presented and discussed in detail. The first one deals with a classical first-order analysis according to which the member buckling lengths are identified, while the second and also the third ones with the other, second-order design techniques. The formal distinction between the second and the third procedures used in this paper lies in the complexity of the adopted computational model. In the first case, only the amplification coefficient is calculated, separately for each frame beam level, and finally the ordinary static analysis is performed but for the amplified load arrangement. In the second case, the analogous analysis is much more complex because the so called arc-length method is used to solve a system of non-linear equations in Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis 2010 software, so also the higher-order effects are additionally taken into account. All considered approaches are illustrated and compared one to another, both qualitatively and quantitatively, due to the presentation of a numerical example which deals with the prediction of the behaviour under fire conditions of two-aisle and two-storey steel sway frame structure. The main objective of the authors is to show in this paper that the value of the sought critical temperature of the whole frame, i.e. such the reference temperature value for which the fire resistance limit state of the examined structure is reached, strongly depends not only on the accurate reduction of mechanical properties characterizing the structural steel the considered frame is made of but also on the suitable joint stiffness decrease modelling for fire conditions when the temperature of the frame members is increasing. To do this two alternative joint formal models are taken into account in the analysis for comparative purposes. It is accepted that all beam-to-column joints designed in the frame have the same scheme. However, in the first model they are treated as fully-rigid during the whole time of a fire exposure. The second model is connected with the consideration of real joint flexibility which depends on the actual member temperature. In the second design model all beam-to-column joints are adopted to be the end-plate semi-rigid ones. Such choice is determined by the authors’ attainability to the experimentally obtained characteristics, representing by the set of the bending moment – member temperature – joint rotation curves given in the professional literature. The fully developed fire is modelled in the whole frame first floor area. This means that the second-story columns as well as the beams supporting the upper frame floor are perfectly isolated against the fire exposure so only the steel members localized inside the building first floor volume are monotonically heated by fire. The level of the frame external loading is accepted to be constant during fire and also to be independent on fire intensity.
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72775
Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning
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Abstract:
In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.
818
76456
Influence of Procurement Methods on Cost Performance of Building Projects in Gombe State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Procurement methods is described as systems of contractual arrangements used by the contractor in order to secure the design and construction services based on the stipulated cost and within the required time and quality. Despite that, major projects in the Nigerian construction industry failed because of wrong procurement methods with major consequences leads to cost overrun which needs to find lasting solution. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of procurement methods on cost performance of building projects in Gombe State, Nigeria. Study adopts descriptive and explorative design approach. Data were collected through administering of one hundred questionnaire using convenient sampling techniques. Data analyses using percentages, mean value and Anova analysis. Major finding show that more than fifty percent (50%) of procurement methods available are mainly utilized in the study area and the top procurement methods that have high impacts on cost performance as compare with the other methods is project management and direct labour procurement methods. The results of hypothesis’ tests with pvalue 0.12 and 0.07 validated that there was no significant variation in the perception of stakeholders’ on the impacts of procurements methods on cost performance. Therefore, the study concluded that projects management and direct labour are the most appropriate procurement methods that will ensure successful completion of project at stipulated cost in building projects.
817
77824
Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry
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Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.
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75930
Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge
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Abstract:
Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.
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74671
The Intensity of Lighting and Its Impact on the Quality of Production and Workers Healthy
Abstract:
Lighting has an important role in improving the performance of employees and ensuring their safety. Therefore, the facilities are interested in improving the quality of lighting. Countries also set lighting standards for different activities. In this research, we measured lighting in several work sites, including factories, assembly sites, workshops and study places, and compared the lighting readings with the recommended values. The results indicate that lighting does not receive sufficient attention in the design of the factory, and the maintenance of lighting devices is almost non-zero, which makes lighting measurements are low for the standards only some exceptional cases, which can explain the improvement of lighting because of the presence of windows that allow natural light to pass. These windows may not work when the weather is not sunny. Therefore, we believe that many measures have been taken to improve the quality of lighting.