International Science Index

International Journal of Cognitive and Language Sciences

A Research on Flipped-Classroom Teaching Model in English for Academic Purpose Teaching
With rigid teaching procedures and limited academic performance assessment methods, traditional teaching model stands in the way of college English reform in China, which features EAP (English for Academic Purpose) teaching. Flipped-classroom teaching, which has been extensively applied to science subjects teaching, however, covers the shortage of traditional teaching model in EAP teaching, via creatively inverting traditional teaching procedures. Besides, the application of flipped-classroom teaching model in EAP teaching also proves that this new teaching philosophy is not confined to science subjects teaching; it goes perfectly well with liberal-arts subjects teaching. Data analysis, desk research survey, and comparative study are referred to in the essay so as to prove its feasibility and advantages in EAP teaching.
Creating a Professional Teacher Identity in Britain via Accent Modification
In Britain, accent is arguably still a sensitive issue, and for broad regional accents in particular, the connotations can often be quite negative. Within primary and secondary teaching, what might the implications be for teachers with such accents? To investigate this, the study collected the views of 32 British trainee teachers via semi-structured interviews, and questionnaires, to understand how their accent plays a role in the construction of a professional identity. From the results, it is clear that for teachers from the North and Midlands, in particular, accent modification is something that is required by their mentors; for teachers from the Home Counties, accent is rarely mentioned. While the mentors’ rationale for accent modification is to ensure teachers are better understood and/or to sound ‘professional’, many teachers feel that it is a matter of linguistic prejudice and therefore regard an accent modified for someone else as leading to a fraudulent identity. Moreover, some of the comments can be quite blunt, such as the Midlands teacher who resides in the South being told that it was ‘best to go back to where you come from’ if she couldn’t modify her accent to Southern pronunciation. From the results, there are three broad phonological changes expected: i) Northern/Midlands-accented teachers need to change to Southern pronunciation in words such as bath and bus; thus, a change from [baθ] [bʊs] to [bɑ:θ] [bʌs], ii) Teachers from the North, notably Yorkshire, told to change from monophthongs to diphthongs; thus, a change from [go:] to [goʊ], iii) Glottal stops are to be avoided; a teacher from South London was told by her mentor to write the word ‘water’ with a capital t (waTer), in order to avoid her use of a glottal stop. Thus, in a climate of respect for diversity and equality, this study is timely for the following reasons. First, it addresses an area for which equality is not necessarily relevant – that of accent in British teaching. Second, while many British people arguably have an instinct for ‘broad’ versus more ‘general’ versions of regional accents, there appear to be no studies which have attempted to explain what this means from a purely phonological perspective. Finally, given that the Teachers’ Standards do not mention accent as part of the desired linguistic standards, this study hopes to start a national debate as to whether or not they should, rather than shy away from what can be a potentially complex – and sensitive – topic.
Moderate Holism as an Explanation for Linguistic Phenomena
Traditionally meaning holism is a theory that is related to the meaning attributed to words and their relationships to other words in a language. This theory can be more specifically defined as a defense of the mutual interdependence of all items of linguistic knowledge, so that, for example, to understand the meaning of a given expression, it is necessary to understand a large sector of the language in question or, even the complete language. The aim of this paper is to present a moderate version of meaning holism, which argues that, among other things, meaning holism does not imply the thesis of instability - if there is the change of belief about an object, there is a change of meaning - and, in this way, it is possible to attribute meanings to objects admitting changes of opinions and then beliefs. It will be shown how this version of holism gives an account of the main criticisms made of meaning holism in the last decades and also show how this theory can justify linguistic phenomena (like vagueness and polysemy) that are often treated as problems of language. Finally, it will also be argued that these linguistic phenomena are intrinsic to languages and that the moderate version of meaning holism can justify the occurrence of these phenomena.
The Effects of English Contractions on the Application of Syntactic Theories
A formal structure of the English clause is composed of at least two elements – subject and verb, in structural grammar and at least one element – predicate, in systemic (functional) and generative grammars. Each of the elements can be represented by a word or group (of words). In modern English structure, very often speakers merge two words as one with the use of an apostrophe. Each of the two words can come from different elements or belong to the same element. In either case, result of the merger is called contraction. Although contractions constitute a part of modern English structure, they are considered informal in nature (more frequently used in spoken than written English) that is why they were initially viewed as constituting an evidence of language deterioration. To our knowledge, no formal syntactic theory yet has been particular on the contractions because of its deviation from the formal rules of syntax that seek to identify the elements that form a clause in English. The inconsistency between the formal rules and a contraction is established when two words representing two elements in a non-contraction are merged as one element to form a contraction. Thus the paper presents the various syntactic issues as effects arising from converting non-contracted to contracted forms. It categorizes English contractions and describes each category according to its syntactic relations (position and relationship) and morphological formation (form and content) as integral part of modern structure of English. This is a position paper as such the methodology is observational, descriptive and explanatory/analytical based on existing related literature. The inventory of English contractions contained in books on syntax forms the data from where specific examples are drawn. It is noted as conclusion that the existing syntactic theories were not originally established to account for English contractions. The paper, when published, will further expose the inadequacies of the existing syntactic theories by giving more reasons for the establishment of a more comprehensive syntactic theory for analyzing English clause/sentence structure involving contractions. The method used reveals the extent of the inadequacies in applying the three major syntactic theories: structural, systemic (functional) and generative, on the English contractions. Although no theory is without scope, shying away from the three major theories from recognizing the English contractions need to be broken because of the increasing popularity of its use in modern English structure. The paper, therefore, recommends that as use of contraction gains more popular even in formal speeches today, there is need to establish a syntactic theory to handle its patterns of syntactic relations and morphological formation.
Investigating the Body Paragraphs of English as a Second Language Students' English Academic Essays: Genre Analysis and Needs Analysis
The present study has two objectives. Firstly, it investigates the rhetorical strategies employed in the body paragraphs of ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students’ English academic essays. Peacock’s (2002) model of the discussion section was used as the starting points in this study to investigate the rhetorical moves employed in the data. Secondly, it investigates the writing problems as perceived by these ESL students through an interview. Interview responses serve as accompanying data to the move analysis. Apart from this, students’ English academic writing problems are diagnosed. The findings have pedagogical implications in an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) classroom.
Exchanges between Literature and Cinema: Scripted Writing in the novel "Miguel e os Demônios", by Lourenço Mutarelli
This research looks at the novel Miguel e os demônios (2009), by the contemporary Brazilian author Lourenço Mutarelli. In it, the presence of film language resources is remarkable, creating thus a kind of scripted writing. We intend to analyze the presence of film language in work under study, in which there is a mixture of the characteristics of the novel and screenplay genres, trying to explore which aesthetic and meaning effects of the ownership of a visual language for the creation of a literary text create in the novel. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze the formal and thematic aspects that characterize the hybridity of literature and film in the novel by Lourenço Mutarelli. The method employed comprises reading and production cataloging of theoretical and critical texts, literary and film theory, historical review about the author, and also the realization of an analytical and interpretative reading of novel. In Miguel e os demônios there is a range of formal and thematic elements of popular narrative genres such as the detective story and action film, with a predominance of verb forms in the present and NPs - features that tend to make present the narrated scenes, as in the cinema. The novel, in this sense, is located in an intermediate position between the literary text and the pre-film text, as though filled with proper elements of the language of film, you can not fit it categorically in the genre script, since it does not reduce the script because aspires to be read as a novel. Therefore, the difficulty of fitting the work in a single gender also refused to be extra-textual factors - such as your publication as novel - but, rather, by the binary classifications serve solely to imprison the work on a label, which impoverish not only reading the text, as also the possibility of recognizing literature as a constant dialogue space and interaction with other media. We can say, therefore, that frame the work Miguel e os demônios in one of the two genres (novel or screenplay) proves not enough, since the text is revealed a hybrid narrative, consisting in a kind of scripted writing. In this sense, it is like a text that is born in a society saturated by audiovisual in their daily lives in order to be consumed by readers who, in ascending scale, exchange books by visual narratives. However, the novel uses film's resources without giving up its constitution as literature; on the contrary, it enriches the visual and linguistically, dialoguing with the complex contemporary horizon marked by the cultural industry.
Speech Rhythm Variation in Languages and Dialects: F0, Natural and Inverted Speech
Languages have been classified into different rhythm classes. 'Stress-timed' languages are exemplified by English, 'syllable-timed' languages by French and 'mora-timed' languages by Japanese. However, to our best knowledge, acoustic studies have not been unanimous in strictly establishing which rhythm category a given language belongs to and failed to show empirical evidence for isochrony. Perception seems to be a good approach to categorize languages into different rhythm classes. This study, within the scope of experimental phonetics, includes an account of different perceptual experiments using cues from natural and inverted speech, as well as pitch extracted from speech data. It is an attempt to categorize speech rhythm over a large set of Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Lebanese and Moroccan) and English dialects (Welsh, Irish, Scottish and Texan) as well as other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, and German. Listeners managed to classify the different languages and dialects into different rhythm classes using suprasegmental cues mainly rhythm and pitch (F0). They also perceived rhythmic differences even among languages and dialects belonging to the same rhythm class. This may show that there are different subclasses within very broad rhythmic typologies.
Effectiveness of Interpreting Services in Addressing Health Needs of Minority Refugee Population in New Zealand
A significant number of people have been displaced from their country of origin and become refugees, mostly due to armed conflicts, political violence, and human rights abuse. In general, refugees have a poor state of health due to the extreme difficulties they have experienced during their refugee journey. Despite their compromised health status, refugees often face difficulties in accessing health services in their countries of resettlement due to a number of barriers; most commonly related to language and communication difficulties, financial hardships, and acculturation challenges. In 1991–1992, more than 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali origin became refugees. These Bhutanese refugees spend more than 18 years in refugee camps in Nepal, and most of them have now been resettled in eight different host countries; including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, Norway, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to examine the Effectiveness of Interpreting Services in addressing health needs of Bhutanese refugee women in New Zealand primary health care settings. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, five focus group discussions were conducted with 32 Bhutanese refugee women. In addition, one focus group discussion was also conducted with eight Bhutanese refugee men. In the second phase, individual interviews were carried out with 12 health professionals, who were nurses (n=5), doctors (n=4) and midwives (n=3).The first phase of the study aimed to explore Bhutanese women’s experiences of accessing and utilizing interpreting services in New Zealand, the challenges they encountered and the ways in which they responded to these challenges. One focus group was also conducted with eight Bhutanese men, and the purpose of this focus group was to listen to Bhutanese men’s perspectives about the effectiveness of interpreting services in New Zealand in meeting the health needs of Bhutanese women. The second phase of the study was designed to gain an understanding of health professionals’ experiences of working with Bhutanese refugee women, their satisfaction with language support (interpreting) services, and to elicit comments and suggestions regarding interpreting services provided to Bhutanese women. Combining Phase One and Phase Two of the study data provided an overall picture of the effectiveness of interpreting services in addressing Bhutanese refugee women’s health needs in New Zealand. This study is the first of its kind in New Zealand, which examined the effectiveness of interpreting services in primary health care practices by exploring perspectives of those who are at the heart of healthcare: service users and service providers. Overall, the findings of this study indicated that there have been inadequacies and constraints in the provision of effective interpreting services to Bhutanese refugee women in New Zealand. This study provides evidence for recommendations to address these inadequacies. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to developing future strategies for delivering culturally and linguistically appropriate primary health care services to address health care needs of minority refugee population in New Zealand and other host countries.
Translation and Transculturality in Contemporary Chinese Art: A Case Study of 'Gu Wenda’s Forest of Stone Steles and United Nations: Temple of Heaven'
Translation has been elevated to one of the key notions in contemporary cultural discourse for a wide range of fields. It focuses not only on communication or transmission of meaning between different languages, but also on ways in which the very act of translation can be understood as a metaphor for cultural process. In recent years, the notion of translation is employed by some contemporary Chinese artists in a conceptual way, whose works contribute to constructing/deconstructing global/local cultural discourse and their own cultural identities. This study examines two artworks by contemporary Chinese artist Gu Wenda from a translational perspective, namely Forest of Stone Steles - Retranslation & Rewriting of Tang Poetry and United Nations - China Monument: Temple of Heaven, aiming to broaden the scope of Translation Studies to investigate visual culture and enrich methodological approach to contemporary Chinese art. Focusing on the relationship between translation, visuality and materiality in these two works, this study explores the nature of translation as part of the production of cultural discourse in the age of globalization as well as a way of establishing cultural identity. Gu Wenda, one of the most prestigious artists in contemporary China, is considered a pioneer in ‘85 Art Movement of China, and thereafter he went abroad for his artistic pursuits. His transnational experience enriches his cultural identity and the underlying discourse constructed/deconstructed in many of his works. In the two works already mentioned, the concept of translation is deployed by Gu Wenda on both linguistic level and metaphorical level for artistic expression. These two works produce discourses in which the artist’s perception of cultural identity in a transnational context is articulated by the tension between source text and target text. Based on the conceptual framework of cultural identity proposed by Stuart Hall, analyses of Gu Wenda’s cultural identity revealed through translation in these two works are centred on two axes, i.e., the axis of similarity and continuity with Chinese intellectual culture and the axis of difference and rupture with it, and the dialogic relationship between these two vectors. It argues that besides serving as a means of constructing visuality in the two works, translation metaphorizes Gu Wenda’s journey from overcoming his cultural identity anxiety to re-establishing a transcultural identity embedded in the underlying discourse.
A Review of Lexical Retrieval Intervention in Primary Progressive Aphasia and Alzheimer's Disease: Mechanisms of Change, Cognition, and Generalisation
Background: While significant benefits of lexical retrieval intervention are evident within the Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) literature, an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie change or improvement is limited. Change mechanisms have been explored in the non-progressive post-stroke literature that may offer insight into how interventions affect change with progressive language disorders. The potential influences of cognitive factors may also play a role here, interacting with the aims of intervention. Exploring how such processes have been applied is likely to grow our understanding of how interventions have, or have not, been effective, and how and why generalisation is likely, or not, to occur. Aims: This review of the literature aimed to (1) investigate the proposed mechanisms of change which underpin lexical interventions, mapping the PPA and AD lexical retrieval literature to theoretical accounts of mechanisms that underlie change within the broader intervention literature, (2) identify whether and which nonlinguistic cognitive functions have been engaged in intervention with these populations and any proposed influence, and (3) explore evidence of linguistic generalisation, with particular reference to change mechanisms employed in interventions. Main contribution: A search of Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL identified 36 articles that reported data for individuals with PPA or AD following lexical retrieval intervention. A review of the mechanisms of change identified 10 studies that used stimulation, 21 studies utilised relearning, three studies drew on reorganisation, and two studies used cognitive-relay. Significant treatment gains, predominantly based on linguistic performance measures, were reported for all client groups for each of the proposed mechanisms. Reorganisation and cognitive-relay change mechanisms were only targeted in PPA. Eighteen studies incorporated nonlinguistic cognitive functions in intervention; these were limited to autobiographical memory (16 studies), episodic memory (three studies), or both (one study). Linguistic generalisation outcomes were inconsistently reported in PPA and AD studies. Conclusion: This review highlights that individuals with PPA and AD may benefit from lexical retrieval intervention, irrespective of the mechanism of change. Thorough application of a theory of intervention is required to gain a greater understanding of the change mechanisms, as well as the interplay of nonlinguistic cognitive functions.
Language Anxiety and Learner Achievement among University Undergraduates in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Language Anxiety (LA) – a distinct psychological construct of self-perceptions and behaviors related to classroom language learning – is perceived as a significant variable highly correlated with Second Language Acquisition (SLA). However, the existing scholarship has inadequately explored the nuances of LA in relation to South Asia, especially in terms of Sri Lankan higher education contexts. Thus, the current study, situated within the broad areas of Psychology of SLA and Applied Linguistics, investigates the impact of competency-based LA and identity-based LA on learner achievement among undergraduates of Sri Lanka. Employing a case study approach to explore the impact of LA, 750 undergraduates of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, thus covering 25% of the student population from all seven faculties of the university, were selected as participants using stratified proportionate sampling in terms of ethnicity, gender, and disciplines. The qualitative and quantitative research inquiry utilized for data collection include a questionnaire consisting a set of structured and unstructured questions, and semi-structured interviews as research instruments. Data analysis includes both descriptive and statistical measures. As per the quantitative measures of data analysis, the study employed Pearson Correlation Coefficient test, Chi-Square test, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis; it used LA as the dependent variable, and two types of independent variables were used: direct and indirect variables. Direct variables encompass the four main language skills- reading, writing, speaking and listening- and test anxiety. These variables were further explored through classroom activities on grammar, vocabulary and individual and group presentations. Indirect variables are identity, gender and cultural stereotypes, discipline, social background, income level, ethnicity, religion and parents’ education level. Learner achievement was measured through final scores the participants have obtained for Compulsory English- a common first-year course unit mandatory for all undergraduates. LA was measured using the FLCAS. In order to increase the validity and reliability of the study, data collected were triangulated through descriptive content analysis. Clearly evident through both the statistical analysis and the qualitative analysis of the results is the significant linear negative correlation between LA and learner achievement, and the significant negative correlation between LA and culturally-operated gender stereotypes which create identity disparities in learners. The study also found that both competency-based LA and identity-based LA are experienced primarily and inescapably due to the apprehensions regarding speaking in English. Most participants who reported high levels of LA were from an urban socio-economic background of lower income families. Findings exemplify the linguistic inequality prevalent in the socio-cultural milieu in Sri Lankan society. This inequality makes learning English a dire need, yet, very much an anxiety provoking process because of many sociolinguistic, cultural and ideological factors related to English as a Second Language (ESL) in Sri Lanka. The findings bring out the intricate interrelatedness of both the dependent variable (LA) and the independent variables stated above, emphasizing that the significant linear negative correlation between LA and learner achievement is connected to the affective, cognitive and sociolinguistic domains of SLA. Thus, the study highlights the promise in linguistic practices such as code-switching, crossing and accommodating hybrid identities as strategies in minimizing LA and maximizing the experience of ESL.
A Contrastive Study between Japanese EFL Learners’ and Native-English Speakers’ Expository Writing Using Rhetorical Structure Theory
Contrastive studies between the languages of English and Japanese make up a field of research that have offered substantial contributions to our understanding of L2 writing. Nevertheless, while these studies have offered insight into certain areas of L2 writing, none thus far have been extensive enough to offer more than suggestive implications. The majority of these studies range from the objective, quantifiable measurements of sentence-level features, to the more interpretive observations of discourse analysis, yet none really provide empirical, quantifiable evidence that could be used to practically address the needs of Japanese EFL learners (JEFLs) in the writing classroom. We must then ask ourselves: What conventions are slipping through—not being addressed or focused on enough—in English education in Japan? In other words, rather than simply identifying differences and postulating origins of those differences, it is vital to pinpoint the specific conventions JEFLs need explicated so that they can be effectively addressed in the writing classroom. In fact, it is essential that we sidestep this obsession of wanting to know why certain errors occurs and focus on the errors themselves and how they are affecting learners’ writing. What needs to be done, therefore, is research that combines quantifiable measurements with interpretive observations of anomalies at both the macro- and micro-levels. These anomalies must be considered in tandem with one another and not as separate entities in order to plausibly account for what is causing JEFLs’ writing to be experienced as ‘illogical’ and ‘incoherent’ by native speakers of English (NESs) beyond grammatical errors and idiomaticity. To this end, this study adopted Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) as the analytical framework and compared the features of JEFLs’ English texts (N=22) with those of NESs’ texts (N=22). Paragraphs were parsed into elementary discourse units (EDUs) using the Syntactic and Lexical-based Discourse Segmenter (SLSeg). Those EDUs were then analyzed within the RST framework, and the frequency of relations were tabulated. Yule’s difference coefficient was applied to assess the difference in the relative frequency of a relation in the two corpora. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to determine if there was a statistical significance between the two corpora’s relation frequencies. The results showed a number of differences between the two corpora. Specifically, Subject Matter relations were used significantly more by the JEFLs (p=0.047) than by the NESs. Furthermore, qualitative observations made by the author found that the JEFLs regularly struggled to match the content of a nucleus with its function, often forming what the author has termed ‘artificial nuclei’ in the structure of texts. These anomalies could plausibly account for the incoherence regularly experienced by NESs when reading JEFL English texts.
A Comparison between Bèi Passives and Yóu Passives in Mandarin Chinese
This study compares the syntax and semantics of two kinds of passives in Mandarin Chinese: bèi passives and yóu passives. To express a Chinese equivalent for ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ either bèi or yóu can be used, as in Xiǎotōu bèi/yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le. It is shown in this study that bèi passives and yóu passives differ semantically and syntactically. The semantic observations are based on the theta theory, dealing with thematic roles. On the other hand, the syntactic analysis draws heavily upon the generative grammar, looking into thematic structures. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the core semantics of bèi passives is centered on the Patient NP in the subject position. This Patient NP is essentially an Affectee, undergoing the outcome or consequence brought up by the action represented by the predicate. This may explain why in the sentence Wǒde huà bèi/*yóu tā niǔqū le ‘My words have been twisted by him/her,’ only bèi is allowed. This is because the subject NP wǒde huà ‘my words’ suffers a negative consequence. Yóu passives, in contrast, place the semantic focus on the post-yóu NP, which is not an Affectee though. Instead, it plays a role which has to take certain responsibility without being affected in a way like an Affectee. For example, in the sentence Zhèbù diànyǐng yóu/*bèi tā dānrèn dǎoyǎn ‘This film is directed by him/her,’ only the use of yóu is possible because the post-yóu NP tā ‘s/he’ refers to someone in charge, who is not an Affectee, nor is the sentence-initial NP zhèbù diànyǐng ‘this film’. When it comes to the second finding, the syntactic structures of bèi passives and yóu passives differ in that the former involve a two-place predicate while the latter a three-place predicate. The passive morpheme bèi in a case like Xiǎotōu bèi jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police’ has been argued by some Chinese syntacticians to be a two-place predicate which selects an Experiencer subject and an Event complement. Under this analysis, the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ in the above example is a base-generated subject. This study, however, proposes that yóu passives fall into a three-place unergative structure. In the sentence Xiǎotōu yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ is a topic which serves as a Patient taken by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ The subject of the sentence is assumed to be an Agent, which is in a null form and may find its reference from the discourse or world knowledge. Regarding the post-yóu NP jǐngchá ‘the police,’ its status is dual. On the one hand, it is a Patient introduced by the light verb yóu; on the other, it is an Agent assigned by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ It is concluded that the findings in this study contribute to better understanding of what makes the distinction between the two kinds of Chinese passives.
Designing a Corpus of Oral Histories
The Irish Bureau of Military History was established by the Irish Minister for Defence in 1947. Over the subsequent ten years, 1773 witness statements were collected by the Bureau staff. They were given the task of travelling throughout Ireland to gather as much information as possible from those involved in the independence movement. This resulted in one of the largest oral history collections of its kind ever undertaken, comprised of over 36,000 pages of statements. Since becoming available publicly in 2003, these oral histories have been used as valuable sources of historical data relating to 1916 Rising and War of Independence, but have hitherto not been investigated linguistically. This paper looks at the statements from a linguistic perspective, using methods of corpus linguistics and discourse analysis to evaluate their significance as sources of linguistic data. Though oral histories have been investigated from a linguistic perspective, there remains to be a thorough examination of how they can be utilised within the field of narrative inquiry and how that may bridge the disciplines of history and linguistics. This presentation will outline the potential contribution of oral histories to this field while establishing oral history as a genre of language.
Perceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement
According to a long theoretical tradition in psychology of time, the perceptual present has an actual extension. If a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, subjects perceive compresence of events in succession. Two experiments were carried out to demonstrate that temporal order, within the perceptual presence, depends on the qualitative relationships between perceptual properties of the events. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment verified the phenomenon of temporal displacement with acoustic sequences. The second experiment investigated the influence of harmonic sequences on the temporal organization. The results suggest that, within the temporal displacement, both melodic and harmonic dimensions of the perceptual organization are implied.
Doctor-Patient Interaction in an L2: Pragmatic Study of a Nigerian Experience
This study investigated the use of English in doctor-patient interaction in a university teaching hospital from a southwestern state in Nigeria with the aim of identifying the role of communication in an L2, patterns of communication, discourse strategies, pragmatic acts, and contexts that shape the interaction. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts notion complemented with Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship provided the theoretical standpoint. Data comprising 7 audio-recorded doctors-patient interactions were collected from a University Hospital in Oyo state, Nigeria. Interactions involving the use of English language were purposefully selected. These were supplemented with patients’ case notes and interviews conducted with doctors. Transcription was patterned alongside modified Arminen’s notations of conversation analysis. In the study, interaction in English between doctor and patients has the preponderance of direct-translation, code-mixing and switching, Nigerianism and use of cultural worldviews to express medical experience. Irrespective of these, three patterns communication, namely the paternalistic, interpretive, and deliberative were identified. These were exhibited through varying discourse strategies. The paternalistic model reflected slightly casual conversational conventions and registers. These were achieved through the pragmemic activities of situated speech acts, psychological and physical acts, via patients’ quarrel-induced acts, controlled and managed through doctors’ shared situation knowledge. All these produced empathising, pacifying, promising and instructing practs. The patients’ practs were explaining, provoking, associating and greeting in the paternalistic model. The informative model reveals the use of adjacency pairs, formal turn-taking, precise detailing, institutional talks and dialogic strategies. Through the activities of the speech, prosody and physical acts, the practs of declaring, alerting and informing were utilised by doctors, while the patients exploited adapting, requesting and selecting practs. The negotiating conversational strategy of the deliberative model featured in the speech, prosody and physical acts. In this model, practs of suggesting, teaching, persuading and convincing were utilised by the doctors. The patients deployed the practs of questioning, demanding, considering and deciding. The contextual variables revealed that other patterns (such as phatic and informative) are also used and they coalesced in the hospital within the situational and psychological contexts. However, the paternalistic model was predominantly employed by doctors with over six years in practice, while the interpretive, informative and deliberative models were found among registrar and others below six years of medical practice. Doctors’ experience, patients’ peculiarities and shared cultural knowledge influenced doctor-patient communication in the study.
Linguistics and Islamic Studies in Historical Perspective
Islamic Studies and the Arabic language are indivisible from each other starting from the appearance of Islam and formation of the Classical language. The present paper demonstrates correlation among linguistics and religion in historical perspective with regard to peculiarities of the Arabic language which distinguish it from the other prophetic languages. Islamic Studies and Linguistics are indivisible from each other starting from the invent of Islam and formation of the Classical language. In historical perspective, the Arabic language has been and remains a tool for the expression of Islamic rhetoric being a prophetic language. No other language in the world has preserved its stability for more than 14 centuries. Islam is considered to be one of the most important factors which secure this stability. The analysis and study of the text of Qurʾān are of special importance for those who study Islamic civilization, its role in the destinies of the mankind, its values and virtues. Without understanding of the polyphony of this sacred text, indivisible unity of its form and content it is impossible to understand social developments both in the present and the past. Since the first years of Islam Qurʾān had been in the center of attention of Muslim scholars, and in the center of attention of theologians, historians, philologists, jurists, mathematicians. Only quite recently it has become an object of analysis of the specialists of computer technologies. In Arabic and Islamic studies mediaeval texts i.e. textual documents are considered the main source of information. Hence the analysis of the multiplicity of various texts and finding of interconnections between them help to set scattered fragments of the riddle into a common and eloquent picture of the past, which reflects the state of the society on certain stages of its development. The text of the Qurʾān like any other phenomenon is a multifaceted object that should be studied from different points of view. As a result, this complex study will allow obtaining a three-dimensional image rather than a flat picture alone.
Study and Acquisition of the Duality of the Arabic Language
It is commonly accepted that every language is both pure linguistic phenomenon as well as socially significant communicative system, which exists on the basis of certain society - its collective 'native speaker'. Therefore the language evolution and features besides its own linguistic rules and regulations are also defined by the influence of a number of extra-linguistic factors. The above mentioned statement may be illustrated by the example of the Arabic language which may be characterized by the following peculiarities: - the inner logic of the Arabic language - the 'algebraicity' of its morphological paradigms and grammar rules; - association of the Arabic language with the sacred texts of Islam, its close ties with the pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural heritage - the pre-Islamic poetry and Islamic literature and science; - territorial distribution, which in recent years went far beyond the boundaries of its traditional realm due to the development of new technologies and the spread of mass media, and what is more important, migration processes; - association of the Arabic language with the so called 'Renaissance of Islam'. These peculiarities should be remembered while considering the status of the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language or the Classical Arabic (CA) language as well as the Modern Arabic (MA) dialects in synchrony or from the diachronic point of view. Continuity of any system in diachrony on the one hand depends on the level of its ability to adapt itself to changing environment and by its internal ties on the other. Structural durability of language is characterized by its inner logic, hierarchy of paradigms and its grammar rules, as well as continuity of their implementation in acts of everyday communication. Since the Arabic language is both linguistic and social phenomenon the process of the Arabic language acquisition and study should not be focused only on the knowledge about linguistic features or development of communicative skills alone, but must be supplied with the information related to culture, history and religion of peoples of certain region that will expand and enrich competences of the target audience.
Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of the Success of the First Crusade in Modern Arab and Western Historiography
Despite the fact that the epoch of the Crusades ended more than 700 years ago, its legacy still remains relevant both in the Middle East and in the West. There was made a comparison of the positions of the most prominent Western and Arab medievalists of XX-XXI centuries, using the example of their interpretations of the success of the First Crusade. The analyzed corpus consists of 70 works. In the modern Arab Historiography, it is often pointed out that the Seljuks' struggle against the crusaders of the First Crusade was seriously hampered by the raids of the Arab Bedouin tribes of Jazira. At the same time, it is emphasized that the Arab rulers of Northern Syria were ‘pleased’ with the defeats of the Turks and made peace with the Crusaders, refusing to fight them. At the same time it is usually underlined that the Fatimid aggression against the Turks led both the first and the second to defeat from the Crusaders and became one of the main reasons for the success of the First Crusade and the Muslims' loss of Jerusalem in 1099. The position of Western historians about the reasons for the success of the First Crusade differs significantly. First of all, in the Western Historiography, it is noted that the deaths of the Fatimid and Abbasid Caliphs and the Seljuk Sultan between 1092 and 1094 years created political vacuum just before the crusaders appeared in the Middle East political arena. In 1097-1099, when the Crusaders advanced through Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine to Jerusalem, there was an active internecine struggle between the parts of the Seljuq state that had broken up by that time, and the crusaders were not perceived as a general threat of all Muslims of this region at that time. It is also pointed out that the main goals of the Crusaders - Antioch, Edessa, and Jerusalem - were at that time periphery since the main struggle for power in the Middle East was at this time in Iran. Thus, Arab historians see the lack of support from Arabs of Syria and Jazira and the aggression from Egypt as a crucial factors preventing the Seljuks from defeating the Crusaders, while their Western counterparts consider the internal power struggle between the Seljuks as a more important reason for the success of the First Crusade. The reason for this divergence in the treatment of the events of the First Crusade is probably the prevailing in much of Arab historiography, the idea of the Franks as an enemy of all peoples and religions of the Middle East. At the same time, in contemporary Western Historiography, the crusaders are described only as one of the many military and political forces that operated in this region at the end of the eleventh century.
Strategies and Problems of Teachers in Using Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education
Mother Tongue–Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) is a salient part of the recent reform in the country’s Education system which is the implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Its importance is highlighted by the passing of Republic Act 10523, otherwise known as the ‘Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013’. However, teachers, especially new teachers encounter problems in using mother tongue as medium of instruction. Fortunately, teachers are able to create strategies which address these problems. Specifically, this paper gathered the viewpoints of teachers in using mother tongue and analyzed the different problems and strategies used. The problems encountered by teachers are lack of instructional materials written in mother tongue, especially books, lack of vocabulary, lack of teacher training, and influences of social media to learners. The strategies which address these problems are translation of literary pieces and other instructional materials, vocabulary enrichment through the use of word-of-the-day and picture-word association, remedial class, storytelling, differentiated instruction, explicit teaching, individual and group activities, and utilization of multilingual teaching.
From Self-Regulation to Self-Efficacy: Student Empowerment in Translator Training
The understanding of the role of the contemporary translator is fraught with contradictions and idealistic visions of individuals who, by definition, should be fully competent and versatile. In spite of the fact that lots of translation researchers have probed into the identification and exploration of the concept of translator competence, little study has been devoted to its metacognitive aspects. Due to the dynamic nature of the translator’s occupation, it is difficult to predict what specific skills will prove useful for novice translators in their professional career. Thus, it is crucial that the translator is self-regulated enough to adapt to changing job demands and effectively function in the contemporary, highly dynamic, translation market. The objective of the presentation is to investigate the role and nature of the translator’s self-regulation. It will also demonstrate the results of a pilot study into translation trainees’ self-regulatory skills and explore implications of these findings for translator training in relation to theories of student empowerment.
The Role of a Translator in the Computer-Assisted Translation Process
Even though the use of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools is seen as an advantage to the process of translation, there are voices suggesting that it may not always be the case. The development of technology and its application in the translation process pose a challenge both in the translator training classroom and professional career. New demands require translators to do more, to become ‘language-service providers,’ and to use new hardware and software that requires both new and careful approach. The presentation will capitalize on the results of the two-phase study that took place at the Institute of English Studies, University of Łódź, Poland. The study was meant to prove that student translators, taught CAT tools in a classical way (content-wise in line with software developers’ training videos) place great trust in the quality of external translation memories, relinquishing part of their independence as translators. The results spur the discussion on who is the actual translator – human or machine? In this light, the meaning of the notion of ‘computer-assisted’ takes on a completely different aspect. What does this ‘assistance’ mean? Is it any help provided to the translator during the process of translation, or does it mean doing everything, from pre-processing, through translation itself, to post-processing, with translator assessing (and correcting, if necessary) the final output? How does it relate to the translator training process? The presentation and following paper will address these (and more) questions.
Effect of Spelling on Communicative Competence: A Case Study of Registry Staff of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Spelling is rule bound in a written discourse. It, however, calls into question, when such convention is grossly contravened in a formal setting revered as citadel of learning, despite availability of computer spell-checker, human knowledge, and lexicon. The foregoing reveals the extent of decadence pervading education sector in Nigeria. It is on this premise that this study reviews the effect of spelling on communicative competence of the University of Ibadan Registry Staff. The theoretical framework basically evaluates diverse scholars’ views on communicative competence and how spelling influences the intended meaning of a word/ sentence as a result of undue infringement on grammatical (spelling) rule. Newsletter, bulletin, memo, and letter are four print materials purposively selected while the methodology adopted is content analysis. Similarly, five categories, though not limited to, through which spelling blunders are committed are considered: effect of spelling (omission, addition, and substitution); sound ( homophone); transposition (heading/body: content) and ambiguity (capitalisation, space, and acronym). Subsequently, the analyses, findings, and recommendations are equally looked into. Summarily, the study x-rays effective role(s) plays by spelling in enhancing communicative competence through appropriate usage of linguistic registers.
Production of Oral Vowels by Chinese Learners of Portuguese: Problems and Didactic Implications
The increasing number of learners of Portuguese as Foreign Language in China justifies the need to define the phonetic profile of these learners and to design didactic materials that are adjusted to their specific problems in pronunciation. Different aspects of this topic have been studied, but the production of oral vowels still needs to be investigated. This study aims: (i) to identify the problems the Chinese learners of Portuguese experience in the pronunciation of oral vowels; (ii) to discuss the didactic implications drawn from those problems. The participants were eight native speakers of Mandarin Chinese that had been learning Portuguese in College for almost a year. They named pictured objects and their oral productions were recorded and phonetically transcribed. The selection of the objects to name took into account some linguistic variables (e.g. stress pattern, syllable structure, presence of the Portuguese oral vowels in different word positions according to stress location). The results are analysed in two ways: the impact of linguistic variables on the success rate in the vowels' production; the replacement strategies used in the non-target productions. Both analyses show that the Chinese learners of Portuguese (i) have significantly more difficulties with the mid vowels as well as the high central vowel and (ii) do not master the vowel height feature. These findings contribute to define the phonetic profile of these learners in terms of oral vowel production. Besides, they have important didactic implications for the pronunciation teaching to these specific learners. Those implications are discussed and exemplified.
Technological Tool-Use as an Online Learner Strategy in a Synchronous Speaking Task
Language learning strategies have been defined as thoughts and actions, consciously chosen and operationalized by language learners, to help them in carrying out a multiplicity of tasks from the very outset of learning to the most advanced levels of target language performance. While research in the field of Second Language Acquisition has focused on ‘good’ language learners, the effectiveness of strategy-use and orchestration by effective learners in face-to-face classrooms much less research has attended to learner strategies in online contexts, particular strategies in relation to technological tool use which can be part of a task design. In addition, much research on learner strategies and strategy use has been explored focusing on cognitive, attitudinal and metacognitive behaviour with less research focusing on the social aspect of strategies. This study focuses on how learners mediate with a technological tool designed to support synchronous spoken interaction and how this shape their spoken interaction in the opening of their talk. A case study approach is used incorporating notions from communities of practice theory to analyse and understand learner strategies of dyads carrying out a role play task. The study employs analysis of transcripts of spoken interaction in the openings of the talk along with log files of tool use. The study draws on results of previous studies pertaining to the same tool as a form of triangulation. Findings show how learners gain pre-task planning time through technological tool control. The strategies involving learners’ choices to enter and exit the tool shape their spoken interaction qualitatively, with some cases demonstrating long silences whilst others appearing to start the pedagogical task immediately. Who/what learners orientate to in the openings of the talk: an audience (i.e. the teacher), each other and/or screen-based signifiers in the opening moments of the talk also becomes a focus. The study highlights how tool use as a social practice should be considered a learning strategy in online contexts whereby different usages may be understood in the light of the more usual asynchronous social practices of the online community. The teachers’ role in the community is also problematised as the evaluator of the practices of that community. Results are pertinent for task design for synchronous speaking tasks. The use of community of practice theory supports an understanding of strategy use that involves both metacognition alongside social context revealing how tool-use strategies may need to be orally (socially) negotiated by learners and may also differ from an online language community.
Lexical- Semantic Deficits in Sinhala Speaking Persons with Post Stroke Aphasia: Evidence from Single Word Auditory Comprehension Task
In aphasia, various levels of symbolic language processing (semantics) are affected. It is shown that Persons with Aphasia (PWA) often experience more problems comprehending some categories of words than others. The study aimed to determine lexical semantic deficits seen in Auditory Comprehension (AC) and to describe lexical-semantic deficits across six selected word categories. Thirteen (n =13) persons diagnosed with post stroke aphasia (PSA) were recruited to perform an AC task. Foods, objects, clothes, vehicles, body parts and animals were selected as the six categories. As the test stimuli, black and white line drawings were adapted from a picture set developed for semantic studies by Snodgrass & Vanderwart. A pilot study was conducted with five (n=5) healthy non brain damaged Sinhala speaking adults to decide familiarity and applicability of the test material. In the main study, participants were scored based on the accuracy and number of errors shown. The results indicate similar trends of lexical semantic deficits identified in the literature confirming ‘animals’ to be the easiest category to comprehend. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine the association between the selected variables and the participants’ performance on AC task. No statistical significance was found between the errors and the type of aphasia reflecting similar patterns described in aphasia literature in other languages. The current study indicates the presence of selectivity of lexical semantic deficits in AC and a hierarchy was developed based on the complexity of the categories to comprehend by Sinhala speaking PWA, which might be clinically beneficial when improving language skills of Sinhala speaking persons with post-stroke aphasia. However, further studies on aphasia should be conducted with larger samples for a longer period to study deficits in Sinhala and other Sri Lankan languages (Tamil and Malay).
The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages
Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.
Research on Detection of Web Page Visual Salience Region Based on Eye Tracker and Spectral Residual Model
Web page has been one of the most important way of knowing the world. Humans catch a lot of information from it everyday. Thus, understanding where human looks when they surfing the web pages is rather important. In normal scenes, the down-top features and top-down tasks significantly affect humans’ eye movement. In this paper, we investigated if the conventional visual salience algorithm can properly predict humans’ visual attractive region when they viewing the web pages. First, we obtained the eye movement data when the participants viewing the web pages using an eye tracker. By the analysis of eye movement data, we studied the influence of visual saliency and thinking way on eye-movement pattern. The analysis result showed that thinking way affect human’ eye-movement pattern much more than visual saliency. Second, we compared the results of web page visual salience region extracted by Itti model and Spectral Residual (SR) model. The results showed that Spectral Residual (SR) model performs superior than Itti model by comparison with the heat map from eye movements. Considering the influence of mind habit on humans’ visual region of interest, we introduced one of the most important cue in mind habit-fixation position to improved the SR model. The result showed that the improved SR model can better predict the human visual region of interest in web pages.
Genre Analysis and Interview: Body Paragraphs of Student English Academic Essays
This study reports on a study examining the body paragraphs of English academic essays written by some ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students. These students took English for Academic Purposes course for one semester at a public university in Malaysia. In addition to analyzing the communicative purposes employed in the sample, for triangulation of data, student participants were interviewed on their academic writing experience in their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. The present study has pedagogical implications in an EAP classroom.
Studying Second Language Learners' Language Behavior from Conversation Analysis Perspective
This paper on second language teaching and learning uses conversation analysis (CA) approach and focuses on how second language learners of Chinese do repair when making clarification requests. In order to demonstrate their behavior in interaction, a comparison was made to study the differences between native speakers of Chinese with non-native speakers of Chinese. The significance of the research is to make second language teachers and learners aware of repair and how to seek clarification. Utilizing the methodology of CA, the research involved two sets of naturally occurring recordings, one of native speaker students and the other of non-native speaker students. Both sets of recording were telephone talks between students and teachers. There were 50 native speaker students and 50 non-native speaker students. From multiple listening to the recordings, the parts with repairs for clarification were selected for analysis which included the moments in the talk when students had problems in understanding or hearing the speaker and had to seek clarification. For example, ‘Sorry, I do not understand ‘and ‘Can you repeat the question? ‘were the parts as repair to make clarification requests. In the data, there were 43 such cases from native speaker students and 88 cases from non-native speaker students. The non-native speaker students were more likely to use repair to seek clarification. Analysis on how the students make clarification requests during their conversation was carried out by investigating how the students initiated problems and how the teachers repaired the problems. In CA term, it is called other-initiated self-repair (OISR), which refers to student-initiated teacher-repair in this research. The findings show that, in initiating repair, native speaker students pay more attention to mutual understanding (inter-subjectivity) while non-native speaker students, due to their lack of language proficiency, pay more attention to their status of knowledge (epistemic) switch. There are three major differences: 1, native Chinese students more often initiate closed-class OISR (seeking specific information in the request) such as repeating a word or phrases from the previous turn while non-native students more frequently initiate open-class OISR (not specifying clarification) such as ‘sorry, I don’t understand ‘. 2, native speakers’ clarification requests are treated by the teacher as understanding of the content while non-native learners’ clarification requests are treated by teacher as language proficiency problem. 3, native speakers don’t see repair as knowledge issue and there is no third position in the repair sequences to close repair while non-native learners take repair sequence as a time to adjust their knowledge. There is clear closing third position token such as ‘oh ‘ to close repair sequence so that the topic can go back. In conclusion, this paper uses conversation analysis approach to compare differences between native Chinese speakers and non-native Chinese learners in their ways of conducting repair when making clarification requests. The findings are useful in future Chinese language teaching and learning, especially in teaching pragmatics such as requests.