International Science Index

International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering

2226
76276
Mayan Culture and Attitudes towards Sustainability
Authors:
Abstract:
Agricultural methods and ecological approaches employed by the pre-colonial Mayans may provide valuable insights into forest management and viable alternatives for resource sustainability in the face of major deforestation across Central and South America.Using a combination of observation data collected from the modern indigenous inhabitants near Mixco in Guatemala and historical data, this study was able to create a holistic picture of how the Maya maintained their ecosystems. Surveys and observations were conducted in the field, over a period of twelve weeks across two years. Geographic and archaeological data for this area was provided by Guatemalan organizations such as the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Observations of current indigenous populations around Mixco showed that they adhered to traditional Mayan methods of agriculture, such as terrace construction and arboriculture. Rather than planting one cash crop as was done by the Spanish, indigenous peoples practice agroforestry, cultivating forests that would provide trees for construction material, wild plant foods, habitat for game, and medicinal herbs. The emphasis on biodiversity prevented deforestation and created a sustainable balance between human consumption and forest regrowth. Historical data provided by MayaSim showed that the Mayans successfully maintained their ecosystems from about 800BCE to 700CE. When the Mayans practiced natural resource conservation and cultivated a harmonious relationship with the forest around them, they were able to thrive and prosper alongside nature. Having lasted over a thousand years, the Mayan empire provides a valuable lesson in sustainability and human attitudes towards the environment.
2225
78438
Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities
Authors:
Abstract:
This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.
2224
78468
Modelling Natural Organic Matter in a Water Treatment Plant Using Solo/Parafac
Abstract:
This study introduces a modelling technique that can be used to determine the characteristics and quantity of natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as predict the number and identity of molecules and fractions that make up NOM in water. To achieve this, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) dataset were inputted into a parallel factor (Solo/ParaFac) model. The FEEM datasets were used to determine the NOM fractions that persist throughout each plant and contribute to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Analytical techniques such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measure amount of NOM, but do not determine the number of fractions that make up NOM. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) characterizes the NOM fractions by molecular weight but is time-consuming. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) characterizes NOM based only on the size of constituent fractions. Owing to the limitations of these techniques, there is a need to develop new approaches for NOM characterization. The major strengths of modelling include (1) determination of the number of unknown molecular fractions making up NOM and (2) rapid prediction of the quality and quantity of NOM changes in the water treatment plant and water distribution processes. The outcome of this study is to develop a model that will assist water treatment authorities to respond rapidly to changes in NOM characteristics due to seasonal and weather variations. The principal expected outcomes are (1) NOM characterisation using FEEM data to generate datasets for raw water and samples taken after each unit within the drinking water treatment train, (2) determine excitation/emission using FEEM for online monitoring, (3) perform disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) measurements relating ultra violet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and FEEM, and (4) perform modelling using Solo/ParaFac with the intention to predict the amount of different groups of molecules that make up NOM in water.
2223
78458
Nitrogen/Platinum Co-doped TiO₂ for enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant black
Abstract:
Elimination of toxic organic compounds from wastewater is currently one of the most important subjects in water pollution control. The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N,Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalyts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. SEM/ EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, FTIR, RS, PL and UV-Vis were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the commercial TiO₂ revealing a shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of BB dye. Enhanced photodegradation efficiency of BB was achieved after 180 min reaction time with initial concentration of 50 ppm BB solution. This was attributed to the rod-like shape of the materials, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of visible light induced by N,Pt co-doping. The co-doped N,Pt also exhibited pseudo-first order kinetic behaviour with half-life and rate constant of 0.37 min 0.1984 min⁻¹ and respectively. N doped TiO₂ and N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performances for the removal of BB from water.
2222
77429
Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Natural Hazards along the Mediterranean Coastal Zone of Egypt
Abstract:
Earthquakes strike without warning and cause widespread damage to social and economic infrastructures and creating life losses. These can neither be predicted nor prevented in terms of their magnitude, place, and time of occurrence. It is a global phenomenon that creates nearly 18% of life losses and nearly 35% of economic damage. The coastal zone of Egypt is considered low to medium risk, however, there is a record of high magnitude earthquakes that created Tsunami in the past. The northern coastal zone of Egypt is under the force of tension shear zones of African and European plates that have considerable earthquakes with variable degrees. This research studied the earthquakes in the last 65 years in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to the geotectonic shear zones. 85% of these earthquakes are in the marine that might create Tsunami. Aegean and Anatolia shear zones are the highest contributors of the earthquakes with nearly 37% and 36% respectively. However the least one is the Arabia zone with 1%, and Africa is about 26%. The research proposed three scenarios for the socioeconomic hazards, earthquakes with Tsunami that will destroy one fifth of the economic infrastructures with unpredictable life losses. The estimated cost of recovery of such losses is nearly 400B USD. The second scenario is earthquake without Tsunami that will impact the major urban and infrastructures. The last scenario is tidal gauges events that threaten the low-lying areas particularly the eastern side which has major land subsidence.
2221
78415
Metal Contamination in an E-Waste Recycling Community in Northeastern Thailand
Abstract:
Electronic waste, ‘e-waste’, refers generally to discarded electronics and electrical equipment, including products from cell phones and laptops to wires, batteries and appliances. While e-waste represents a transformative source of income in low- and middle-income countries, informal e-waste workers use rudimentary methods to recover materials, simultaneously releasing harmful chemicals into the environment and creating a health hazard for themselves and surrounding communities. Valuable materials such as precious metals, copper, aluminum, ferrous metals, plastic and components are recycled from e-waste. However, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals are toxicants contained within e-waste and are of great concern to human and environmental health. The current study seeks to evaluate the environmental contamination resulting from informal e-waste recycling in a predominantly agricultural community in northeastern Thailand. To accomplish this objective, five types of environmental samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of eight metals commonly associated with e-waste recycling during the period of July 2016 through July 2017. Rice samples from the community were collected after harvest and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas furnace atomic spectroscopy (GF-AS). Soil samples were collected and analyzed using methods similar to those used in analyzing the rice samples. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed using absorption colorimetry for three heavy metals. Environmental air samples were collected using a sampling pump and matched-weight PVC filters, then analyzed using Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICAP-AES). Finally, surface wipe samples were collected from surfaces in homes where e-waste recycling activities occur and were analyzed using ICAP-AES. Preliminary1 results indicate that some rice samples have concentrations of lead and cadmium significantly higher than limits set by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Similarly, some soil samples show levels of copper, lead and cadmium more than twice the maximum permissible level set by the USDA and WHO, and significantly higher than other areas of Thailand. Surface water samples indicate that areas near e-waste recycling activities, particularly the burning of e-waste products, result in increased levels of cadmium, lead and copper in surface waters. This is of particular concern given that many of the surface waters tested are used in irrigation of crops. Surface wipe samples measured concentrations of metals commonly associated with e-waste, suggesting a danger of ingestion of metals during cooking and other activities. Of particular concern is the relevance of surface contamination of metals to child health. Finally, air sampling showed that the burning of e-waste presents a serious health hazard to workers and the environment through inhalation and deposition2. Our research suggests a need for improved methods of e-waste recycling that allows workers to continue this valuable revenue stream in a sustainable fashion that protects both human and environmental health. 1Statistical analysis to be finished in October 2017 due to follow-up field studies occurring in July and August 2017. 2Still awaiting complete analytic results.
2220
77463
The Effects of Heavy Metal and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution on Bees
Abstract:
Bees are effective pollinators of plants using by humans. However, there is a concern about the fate different species due to their recently decline. Pollution of the environment is described in the literature as one of the causes of this phenomenon. Due to human activities, heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons can occur in bee organisms in high concentrations. The presented study aims to provide information on how pollution affects bee quality, taking into account, also the biological differences between various groups of bees. Understanding the consequences of environmental pollution on bees can help to create and promote bee friendly habitats and actions. The analyses were carried out using two contamination gradients with 5 sites on each. The first, mainly heavy metal polluted gradient is stretching approx. 30km from the Bukowno Zinc smelter near Olkusz in the Lesser Poland Voivodship, to the north. The second cuts through the agglomeration of Kraków up to the southern borders of the Ojców National Park. The gradient near Olkusz is a well-described pollution gradient contaminated mainly by zinc, lead, and cadmium. The second gradient cut through the agglomeration of Kraków and end below the Ojców National Park. On each gradient, two bee species were installed: red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Red mason bee is a polylectic, solitary bee species, widely distributed in Poland. Honey bees are a highly social species of bees, with clearly defined casts and roles in the colony. Before installing the bees in the field, samples of imagos of red mason bees and samples of pollen and imagos from each honey bee colony were analysed for zinc, lead cadmium, polycyclic and monocyclic hydrocarbons levels. After collecting the bees from the field, samples of bees and pollen samples for each site were prepared for heavy metal, monocyclic hydrocarbon, and polycyclic hydrocarbon analysis. Analyses of aromatic hydrocarbons were performed with gas chromatography coupled with a headspace sampler (HP 7694E) and mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. Monocyclic compounds were injected into column with headspace sampler while polycyclic ones with manual injector (after solid-liquid extraction with hexane). The heavy metal content (zinc, lead and cadmium) was assessed with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS AAnalyst 300 Perkin Elmer spectrometer) according to the methods for honey and bee products described in the literature. Pollution levels found in bee bodies and imago body masses in both species, and proportion of sex in case of red mason bees were correlated with pollution levels found in pollen for each site and colony or trap nest. An attempt to pinpoint the most important form of contamination regarding bee health was also be undertaken based on the achieved results.
2219
77970
Flood Management Plans in Different Flooding Zones of Gujranwala and Rawalpindi Divisions, Punjab, Pakistan
Abstract:
In this paper, flood issues in Gujranwala and Rawalpindi divisions are discussed as a primary importance as these zones are affected continuously from flooding in recent years, provincial variability of the issue, introduce status of the continuous administration measures, their adequacy and future needs in flood administration are secured. Flood issues in these zones are exhibited by Chenab River Basin, Jhelum Rivers Basin. Some unique problems, related to floods in these divisions is lack of major dams on Chenab and Jhelum rivers and also mismanagement of rivers and canal water like dam break stream, and water signing in Tal zones, are additionally mentioned. There are major Nalaas in these regions like Nalaa Lai of Rawalpindi and Nalaa Daik, Nalaa Palkhu, Nalaa Aik of Gujranwala are major cause of floods in these regions other than rivers. Proper management of these Nalaas and moving of nearby population well in time could reduce impacts from flood in these regions. Progress of different flood administration measures, both auxiliary and non-basic, are discussed. Likewise, future needs to accomplish proficient and fruitful flood management measures in Pakistan are additionally brought up. In this paper, we describe different hard and soft engineering techniques to overcome flood situations in these zones as these zones are more vulnerable due to lack of management in canal and river water. Effective management and use of hard and soft techniques are need of time in coming future for controlling greater flooding in flood risk zones to overcome or minimize people’s death as well as agricultural and financial resources as flood and other natural disasters are a major drawback in the economic prosperity of the country.
2218
77680
Sampling and Characterization of Fines, Created during the Shredding of Non Hazardous Waste
Abstract:
Fines are heterogeneous residues created during the shredding of non-hazardous waste. They are one of the most challenging issues faced by recyclers because they are at the present time considered as non-sortable and non-reusable mixtures destined to landfill. However, Fines contain a large amount of recoverable materials that could be recycled or reused for the production of solid recovered fuel. This research is conducted in relation to a project named ValoRABES. The aim is to characterize fines and establish a suitable sorting process in order to extract the materials contained in the mixture and define their suitable recovery paths. This paper will highlight the importance of a good sampling and will propose a sampling methodology for fines characterization. First results about the characterization will be also presented.
2217
77790
Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Abstract:
Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.
2216
75729
Decision-Support Model for Effective Water Management: Experiences from Oklahoma and Texas
Abstract:
For the past decades, extreme droughts have been impacting the Southern US states, especially Texas and Oklahoma. In 2011, the most severe drought in Oklahoma and Texas history caused considerable economic losses, especially in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is a sector most affected by drought, while the current and past drought-related losses in this sector allow for predicting future trends. Given general water scarcity in the Southern US states, there is an urgent need to understand and monitor changed in groundwater aquifers, soil moisture, and surface water levels. Agricultural production in Oklahoma and Texas is indispensably dependent on groundwater resources mainly from the Ogallala Aquifer in Panhandle. Due to exceptional drought between 2011 and 2014, on many farms groundwater resources were overused for irrigation to maintain agricultural production. This also contributed to a long-term trend of groundwater scarcity in Oklahoma and Texas aquifers. The main goal of this paper is to analyze short- and long-term implications of drought based on precipitation levels, soil moisture, and groundwater well level changes in Oklahoma and Texas in the time frame 2003-2014. To represent those changes and drought impacts, and by using C++ language, we developed an interactive geospatial model to evaluate and further anticipate future drought implications in both states over time. We also use descriptive statistics to display temporal trends in water availability that might impact water management in the short and long term. The results show that the drought had both significant short-term and long-term implications for Oklahoma and Texas agriculture and the state economies and environment. In 2011-2014, the most extreme droughts caused the groundwater levels to decrease to their record low levels, thus causing a threatening situation of long-term scarcity for agricultural production and other sectors (including municipal use, power generation, and industrial processes). The model can serve as a decision-support tool for sustainable water management in different regions. It can also be used to educate new generations of students about the necessity of sustainable water management at regional and global scales.
2215
75865
Distribution and Segregation of Aerosols in Ambient Air
Abstract:
Aerosols are complex mixture of particulate matters (PM) inclusive of carbons, silica, elements, various salts, etc. Aerosols get deep into the human lungs and cause a broad range of health effects, in particular, respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. They are one of the major culprits for the climate change. They are emitted by the high thermal processes i.e. vehicles, steel, sponge, cement, thermal power plants, etc. Raipur (22˚33'N to 21˚14'N and 82˚6'E) to 81˚38'E) is a growing industrial city in central India with population of two million. In this work, the distribution of inorganics (i.e. Cl⁻, NO³⁻, SO₄²⁻, NH₄⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) associated to the PM in the ambient air is described. The PM₁₀ in ambient air of Raipur city was collected for duration of one year (December 2014 - December 2015). The PM₁₀ was segregated into nine modes i.e. PM₁₀.₀₋₉.₀, PM₉.₀₋₅.₈, PM₅.₈₋₄.₇, PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₃.₃₋₂.₁, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇, PM₀.₇₋₀.₄ and PM₀.₄ to know their emission sources and health hazards. The analysis of ions and metals was carried out by techniques i.e. ion chromatography and TXRF. The PM₁₀ concentration (n=48) was ranged from 100-450 µg/m³ with mean value of 73.57±20.82 µg/m³. The highest concentration of PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇ was observed in the commercial, residential and industrial area, respectively. The effect of meteorology i.e. temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction in the PM₁₀ and associated elemental concentration in the air is discussed.
2214
76064
Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal
Abstract:
Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.
2213
76068
Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran; Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Bioaerosol Removal
Abstract:
The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential buildings located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we have evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentration of bacterial and fungal in 9 sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m³ while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m³ in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium Spp., respectively. The 95% and 45%, of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAIs is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique for reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.
2212
77136
Association between Noise Levels, Particulate Matter Concentrations and Traffic Intensities in a Near-highway Urban Area
Abstract:
Both traffic-generated particles and noise have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially in near-highway environments. Although noise and particulate matters (PM) have different mechanisms of dispersion, sharing the same emission source in urban areas (road traffics) can result in a similar degree of variability in their levels. This study investigated the temporal variation of and correlation between noise levels, PM concentrations and traffic intensities near a major highway in Tehran, Iran. Tehran particulate concentration is highly influenced by road traffic. Additionally, Tehran ultrafine particles (UFP, PM
2211
77141
Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame
Abstract:
This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.
2210
77733
Study on the Integration Schemes and Performance Comparisons of Different Integrated Solar Combined Cycle-Direct Steam Generation Systems
Abstract:
The integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) system has a series of advantages such as increasing the system power generation, less pollutant, and CO2 emission and reducing the cost of solar power generation. In this paper, the parabolic trough collectors with direct steam generation (DSG) technology are considered to replace the heat load of heating surfaces in heat regenerator steam generation (HRSG) of a conventional natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) system containing a PG9351FA gas turbine and a triple pressure HRSG with reheat. The detailed model of the NGCC system is built in ASPEN PLUS software and the parabolic trough collectors with DSG technology is modeled in EBSILON software. ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of single, two, three and four heating surfaces are studied in this paper. Results show that: (1) the ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement heat load of HPB, HPB+LPE, HPE2+HPB+HPS, HPE1+HPE2+ HPB+HPS are the best integration schemes when single, two, three and four stages of heating surfaces are partly replaced by the parabolic trough solar energy collectors with DSG technology. (2) Both the changes of feed water flow and the heat load of the heating surfaces in ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of multi-stage heating surfaces are smaller than those in ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of single heating surface. (3) ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of HPB+LPE heating surfaces can increase the solar power output significantly.(4)The ISCC-DSG systems with the replacement of HPB heating surfaces has the highest solar-thermal-to-electricity efficiency (47.45%) and the solar radiation energy-to-electricity efficiency (30.37%), as well as the highest exergy efficiency of solar filed (33.61%).
2209
75955
Increased Efficiency during Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste in an Industrial Scaled Circulating Fluidized Bed-Boiler
Abstract:
Solid waste volumes are at current predominately deposited on landfill. Furthermore, the impending climate change requires new solutions for a sustainable future energy mix. Currently, solid waste is globally utilized to small extent as fuel during combustion for heat and power production. Due to its variable composition and size, solid waste is considered difficult to combust and requires a technology with high fuel flexibility. One of the commercial technologies used for combustion of such difficult fuels is circulating fluidized beds (CFB). In a CFB boiler, fine particles of a solid material are used as 'bed material', which is accelerated by the incoming combustion air that causes the bed material to fluidize. The chosen bed material has conventionally been silica sand with the main purpose of being a heat carrier, as it transfers heat released by the combustion to the heat-transfer surfaces. However, the release of volatile compounds occurs rapidly in comparison with the lateral mixing in the combustion chamber. To ensure complete combustion a surplus of air is introduced, which decreases the total efficiency of the boiler. In recent years, the concept of partly or entirely replacing the silica sand with an oxygen carrier as bed material has been developed. By introducing an oxygen carrier to the combustion chamber, combustion can be spread out both temporally and spatially in the boiler. Specifically, the oxygen carrier can take up oxygen from the combustion air where it is in abundance and release it to combustible gases where oxygen is in deficit. The concept is referred to as oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) where the natural ore ilmenite (FeTiO3) has been the oxygen carrier used. The authors have validated the oxygen buffering ability of ilmenite during combustion of biomass in Chalmers 12-MWth CFB boiler in previous publications. Furthermore, the concept has been demonstrated on full industrial scale during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in E.ON’s 75 MWth CFB boiler. The experimental campaigns have showed increased mass transfer of oxygen inside the boiler when combustion both biomass and MSW. As a result, a higher degree of burnout is achieved inside the combustion chamber and the plant can be operated at a lower surplus of air. Moreover, the buffer of oxygen provided by the oxygen carrier makes the system less sensitive to disruptions in operation. In conclusion, combusting difficult fuels with OCAC results in higher operation stability and an increase in boiler efficiency.
2208
74707
Household Earthquake Absorptive Capacity Impact on Food Security: A Case Study in Rural Costa Rica
Abstract:
The impact of natural disasters on food security can be devastating, especially in rural settings where livelihoods are closely tied to their productive assets. In hazards studies, absorptive capacity is seen as a threshold that impacts the degree of people’s recovery after a natural disaster. Increasing our understanding of households’ capacity to absorb natural disaster shocks can provide the international community with viable measurements for assessing at-risk communities’ resilience to food insecurities. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important factors in determining a household’s capacity to absorb the impact of a natural disaster. This is an empirical study conducted in six communities in Costa Rica affected by earthquakes. The Earthquake Impact Index was developed for the selection of the communities in this study. The households coded as total loss in the selected communities constituted the sampling frame from which the sample population was drawn. Because of the study area geographically dispersion over a large surface, the stratified clustered sampling hybrid technique was selected. Of the 302 households identified as total loss in the six communities, a total of 126 households were surveyed, constituting 42 percent of the sampling frame. A list of indicators compiled based on theoretical and exploratory grounds for the absorptive capacity construct served to guide the survey development. These indicators were included in the following variables: (1) use of informal safety nets, (2) Coping Strategy, (3) Physical Connectivity, and (4) Infrastructure Damage. A multivariate data analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show that informal safety nets such as family and friends assistance exerted the greatest influence on the ability of households to absorb the impact of earthquakes. In conclusion, communities that experienced the highest environmental impact and human loss got disconnected from the social networks needed to absorb the shock’s impact. This resulted in higher levels of household food insecurity.
2207
74820
Faculty Use of Geospatial Tools for Deep Learning in Science and Engineering Courses
Abstract:
Advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are viewed as important to countries’ national economies and their capacities to be competitive in the global economy. However, many countries experience low numbers of students entering these disciplines. To strengthen the professional STEM pipelines, it is important that students are retained in these disciplines at universities. Scholars agree that to retain students in universities’ STEM degrees, it is necessary that STEM course content shows the relevance of these academic fields to their daily lives. By increasing students’ understanding on the importance of these degrees and careers, students’ motivation to remain in these academic programs can also increase. An effective way to make STEM content relevant to students’ lives is the use of geospatial technologies and geovisualization in the classroom. The Geospatial Revolution, and the science and technology associated with it, has provided scientists and engineers with an incredible amount of data about Earth and Earth systems. This data can be used in the classroom to support instruction and make content relevant to all students. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence use of geospatial technologies and geovisualization as teaching practices in a USA university. The Teaching Practices Inventory survey, which is a modified version of the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative Teaching Practices Inventory, was selected for the study. Faculty in the STEM disciplines that participated in a summer learning institute at a 4-year university in the USA constituted the population selected for the study. One of the summer learning institute’s main purpose was to have an impact on the teaching of STEM courses, particularly the teaching of gateway courses taken by many STEM majors. The sample population for the study is 97.5 of the total number of summer learning institute participants. Basic descriptive statistics through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were performed to find out: 1) The percentage of faculty using geospatial technologies and geovisualization; 2) Did the faculty associated department impact their use of geospatial tools?; and 3) Did the number of years in a teaching capacity impact their use of geospatial tools? Findings indicate that only 10 percent of respondents had used geospatial technologies, and 18 percent had used geospatial visualization. In addition, the use of geovisualization among faculty of different disciplines was broader than the use of geospatial technologies. The use of geospatial technologies concentrated in the engineering departments. Data seems to indicate the lack of incorporation of geospatial tools in STEM education. The use of geospatial tools is an effective way to engage students in deep STEM learning. Future research should look at the effect on student learning and retention in science and engineering programs when geospatial tools are used.
2206
78660
The Effect of Flow Discharge on Suspended Solids Transport in the Nakhon-Nayok River
Abstract:
Suspended solid is one factor for water quality in open channel. It affects various problems in waterways that could cause high sedimentation in the channels, leading to shallowness in the river. It is composed of the organic and inorganic materials which can settle down anywhere along the open channel. Thus, depends on the solid amount and its composition, it occupies the water body capacity and causes the water quality problems simultaneously. However, the existing of suspended solid in the water column depends on the flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec). This study aims to examine the effect of flow discharge (Q) and secchi depth (sec) on the suspended solids concentration in open channel and attempts to establish the formula that represents the relationship between flow discharges (Q), secchi depth (sec) and suspended solid concentration. The field samplings have been conducted in the Nakhon-Nayok river, during the wet season, September 15-16, 2014 and dry season, March 10-11, 2015. The samplings with five different locations are measured. The discharge has been measured onsite by floating technics, the secchi depth has been measured by secchi disc and the water samples have been collected at the center of the water column. They have been analyzed in the laboratory for the suspended solids concentration. The results demonstrate that the decrease in suspended solids concentration is dependent on flow discharge, since the natural processes in erosion consists of routing of eroded material. Finally, an empirical equation to compute the suspended solids concentration that shows an equation (SScon = 9.852 (sec)-0.759 Q0.0355) is developed. The calculated suspended solids concentration, with uses of empirical formula, show good agreement with the record data as the R2 = 0.831. Therefore, the empirical formula in this study is clearly verified.
2205
78030
Disposal Behavior of Extreme Poor People Living in Guatemala at the Base of the Pyramid
Abstract:
With the decrease of poverty, the focus on the solid waste challenge shifts away from affluent, mostly Westernized consumers to the base of the pyramid. The relevance of considering the disposal behavior of impoverished people arises from improved welfare, leading to an increase in consumption opportunities and, consequently, of waste production. In combination with the world’s growing population the relevance of the topic increases, because solid waste management has global impacts on consumers’ welfare. The current annual municipal solid waste generation is estimated to 1.9 billion tonnes, 30% remains uncollected. As for the collected 70% is landfilling and dumping, 19% is recycled or recovered, 11% is led to energy recovery facilities. Therefore, aim is to contribute by adding first insights about poor people's disposal behaviors, including the framing of their rationalities, emotions and cognitions. The study provides novel empirical results obtained from qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews near Guatemala City. In the study’s framework consumers have to choose from three options when deciding what to do with their obsolete possessions: Keeping the product: The main reason for this is the respondent´s emotional attachment to a product. Further, there is a willingness to use the same product under a different scope when it loses its functionality–they recycle their belongings in a customized and sustainable way. Permanently disposing of the product: The study reveals two dominant disposal methods: burning in front of their homes and throwing away in the physical environment. Respondents clearly recognized the disadvantages of burning toxic durables, like electronics. Giving a product away as a gift supports the integration of individuals in their peer networks of family and friends. Temporarily disposing of the product: Was not mentioned–to be specific, rent or lend a product to someone else was out of question. Contrasting the background to which extend poor people are aware of the consequences of their disposal decisions and how they feel about and rationalize their actions were quite unexpected. Respondents reported that they are worried about future consequences with impacts they cannot anticipate now–they are aware that their behaviors harm their health and the environment. Additionally, they expressed concern about the impact this disposal behavior would have on others’ well-being and are therefore sensitive to the waste that surrounds them. Concluding, the BoP-framed life and Westernized consumption, both fit in a circular economy pattern, but the nature of how to recycle and dispose separates these two societal groups. Both systems own a solid waste management system, but people living in slum-type districts and rural areas of poor countries are less interested in connecting to the system–they are primarily afraid of the costs. Further, it can be said that a consumer’s perceived effectiveness is distinct from environmental concerns, but contributes to forecasting certain pro-ecological behaviors. Considering the rationales underlying disposal decisions, thoughtfulness is a well-established determinant of disposition behavior. The precipitating events, emotions and decisions associated with the act of disposing of products are important because these decisions can trigger different results for the disposal process.
2204
76023
Simulation of a Sustainable Irrigation System Development: The Case of Sitio Kantaling Village Farm Lands, Danao City, Cebu, Philippines
Abstract:
Sitio Kantaling is one of the 34 villages in Danao City, Cebu, in the central Philippines. As of 2015, the eight households in the mountainous village extending over 40 hectares of land area, including 12 hectares of arable land, are the source of over a fifth of the agricultural products that go into the city. Over the years, however, the local government had been concerned with the decline in agricultural productivity because increasing number of residents are migrating into the urban areas of the region to look for better employment opportunities. One of the major reasons for the agricultural productivity decline is underdeveloped irrigation infrastructure. The local government had partnered with the University of San Carlos to conduct research on developing an irrigation system that could sustainably meet both agricultural and household consumption needs. From a macro-perspective, a dynamic simulation model was developed to understand the long-term behavior of the status quo and proposed the system. Data on population, water supply and demand, household income, and urban migration were incorporated in the 20-year horizon model. The study also developed a smart irrigation system design. Instead of using electricity to pump water, a network of aqueducts with three main nodes had been designed and strategically located to take advantage of gravity to transport water from a spring. Simulation results showed that implementing a sustainable irrigation system would be able to significantly contribute to the socio-economic progress of the local community.
2203
74621
Seed Germination, Seedling Emergence and Response to Herbicides of Papaver Species (Papaver Rhoeas and P. dubium)
Abstract:
Weed management decisions for weed species can be derived from knowledge of seed germination biology. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and greenhouse to determine the effects of light, temperature, salt and water stress, seed burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Papaver rhoeas and P.dubium and to assay the response of these species to commonly available POST herbicides. Germination of the Papaver seeds was influenced by the tested temperatures (day/night temperatures of 20 and 25 °C) and light. The concentrations of sodium chloride, ranging from 0 to 80 mM, influence germination of seeds. The osmotic potential required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination of P. rhoeas was -0.27 MPa and for P. dubium species was 0.25 MPa. Seedling emergence was greatest for the seeds placed at 1 cm and emergence declined with increased burial depth in the soil. No seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 6 cm. The herbicide 2,4-D at 400 g ai ha-1 provided excellent control of both species when applied at the four-leaf and six-leaf stages. However, at the six-leaf stage, percent control was reduced. The information gained from this study could contribute to developing components of integrated weed management strategies for Papaver species.
2202
74650
Disaster Resilience Analysis of Atlanta Interstate Highway System within the Perimeter
Abstract:
Interstate highway system within the Atlanta Perimeter plays an important role in residents’ daily life. The serious influence of Atlanta I-85 Collapses implies that transportation system in the region lacks a cohesive and comprehensive transportation plan. Therefore, disaster resilience analysis of the transportation system is necessary. Resilience is the system’s capability to persist or to maintain transportation services when exposed to changes or shocks. This paper analyzed the resilience of the whole transportation system within the Perimeter and see how removing interstates within the Perimeter will affect the resilience of the transportation system. The data used in the paper are Atlanta transportation networks and LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics data. First, we calculate the traffic flow on each road section based on LEHD data assuming each trip travel along the shortest travel time paths. Second, we calculate the measure of resilience, which is flow-based connectivity and centrality of the transportation network, and see how they will change if we remove each section of interstates from the current transportation system. Finally, we get the resilience function curve of the interstates and identify the most resilient interstates section. The resilience analysis results show that the framework of calculation resilience is effective and can provide some useful information for the transportation planning and sustainability analysis of the transportation infrastructures.
2201
77401
The Development of Wind Energy and Its Social Acceptance: The Role of Income Received by Wind Farm Owners, the Case of Galicia, Northwest Spain
Abstract:
The last decades have witnessed a significant increase in renewable energy, especially wind energy, to achieve sustainable development. Specialized literature in this field has carried out interesting case studies to extensively analyze both the environmental benefits of this energy and its social acceptance. However, to the best of our knowledge, work to date makes no analysis of the role of private owners of lands with wind potential within a broader territory of strong wind implantation, nor does it estimate their economic incomes relating them to social acceptance. This work fills this gap by focusing on Galicia, territory housing over 4,000 wind turbines and almost 3,400 MW of power. The main difficulty in getting this financial information is that it is classified, not public. We develop methodological techniques (semi- structured interviews and work groups), inserted within the Participatory Research, to overcome this important obstacle. In this manner, the work directly compiles qualitative and quantitative information on the processes as well as the economic results derived from implementing wind energy in Galicia. During the field work, we held 106 semi-structured interviews and 32 workshops with owners of lands occupied by wind farms. The compiled information made it possible to create the socioeconomic database on wind energy in Galicia (SDWEG). This database collects a diversity of quantitative and qualitative information and contains economic information on the income received by the owners of lands occupied by wind farms. In the Galician case, regulatory framework prevented local participation under the community wind farm formula. The possibility of local participation in the new energy model narrowed down to companies wanting to install a wind farm and demanding land occupation. The economic mechanism of local participation begins here, thus explaining the level of acceptance of wind farms. Land owners can receive significant income given that these payments constitute an important source of economic resources, favor local economic activity, allow rural areas to develop productive dynamism projects and improve the standard of living of rural inhabitants. This work estimates that land owners in Galicia perceive about 10 million euros per year in total wind revenues. This represents between 1% and 2% of total wind farm invoicing. On the other hand, relative revenues (Euros per MW), far from the amounts reached in other spaces, show enormous payment variability. This signals the absence of a regulated market, the predominance of partial agreements, and the existence of asymmetric positions between owners and developers. Sustainable development requires the replacement of conventional technologies by low environmental impact technologies, especially those that emit less CO₂. However, this new paradigm also requires rural owners to participate in the income derived from the structural transformation processes linked to sustainable development. This paper demonstrates that regulatory framework may contribute to increasing sustainable technologies with high social acceptance without relevant local economic participation.
2200
77668
Effective Removal of Cesium from Wastewater Using Sewage Sludge Molten (SSM) Slag as Low-Cost Adsorbent
Abstract:
Removal of radioactive cesium from the environment has engrossed the concern of researchers all over the world after the gigantic nuclear power plant disaster at Fukushima Daiichi, Japan in 2011 which released a huge amount of radioactive materials into the soil and water. Cesium is one of the potentially hazardous radioactive materials for human health due to its high solubility and accumulation in food and water. It can be easily deposited into the human body and create thyroid cancer along with other physical problems. Therefore, developing a suitable technology for practical removal of cesium form the radioactive wastewater is an important matter of research. In this study, the effective cesium adsorption from wastewater was experimented onto Sewage Sludge Molten (SSM) slag, modified by alkaline (NaOH) hydrothermal treatment. The raw and modified slags were characterized systematically using BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method, FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscope), XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) spectroscopy to understand the physicochemical changes of the materials due to the modification and its sensitivity and selectivity to cesium ions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose, different initial cesium ions concentrations, temperature and the effect of competitive ions on cesium adsorption. The adsorption isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies were also evaluated following the experimental results to explore the equilibrium conditions and mechanism of adsorption. A higher cesium removal efficiency of almost 100% (for 20-100 mg/L of initial cesium ions concentration) was achieved by the modified SSM slag and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 52.36 mg/g compared with the raw slag (14.50 mg/g). Modified slag converted into highly porous materials, characterised with higher surface area and different artifical zeolites (zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y and sodalite) were also formed during the alkaline hydrothermal treatment process. These zeolites might be enhanced the cesium removal efficiency of modified slag from aqeuous sloution through the ion exchange mechanism. Moreover, other adsorption parameters (solution pH, adsorbent dose, and initial cesium ions concentration etc.) significantly affected the cesium adsorption performance. Kinetic parameters were fitted by pseudo-second order model. The adsorption isotherms data of modified slag were well fitted to the Langmuir (R²=0.989) and Freundlich isotherms model (R²=0.988). The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process by the modified slag was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. In the competitive ions effect, the modified slag selectively captured the cesium ions in the presence of Na⁺ and K⁺, especially at their lower concentrations. Moreover, the modified slag was reused for five cycles after the successful elution process with an appropriate eluting agent (0.5 M H₂SO₄), without deterioration of its original adsorption performance. Therefore, the SSM modified slag could be effectively used as cost effective and a potential adsorbent for cesium adsorption from wastewater.
2199
78012
Potential of Water Purification of Turbid Surface Water Sources in Remote Arid and Semi-Arid Rural Areas of Rajasthan by Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) Tree Seeds
Authors:
Abstract:
Rajasthan is among regions with greatest climate sensitivity and lowest adaptive capabilities. In many parts of the Rajasthan surface water which can be highly turbid and contaminated with fecal coliform bacteria is used for drinking purposes. The majority rely almost exclusively upon traditional sources of highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water for their domestic water needs. In many parts of rural areas of Rajasthan, it is still difficult to obtain clean water, especially remote habitations with no groundwater due to quality issues or depletion and limited feasibility to connect with surface water schemes due to low density of population in these areas to justify large infrastructure investment. The most viable sources are rain water harvesting, community managed open wells, private wells, ponds and small-scale irrigation reservoirs have often been the main traditional sources of rural drinking water. Turbidity is conventionally removed by treating the water with expensive chemicals. This study has to investigate the use of crushed seeds from the tree Moringa oleifera (drumstick) as a natural alternative to conventional coagulant chemicals. The use of Moringa oleifera seed powder can produce potable water of higher quality than the original source. Moringa oleifera a native species of northern India, the tree is now grown extensively throughout the tropics and found in many countries of Africa, Asia & South America. The seeds of tree contains significant quantities of low molecular weight, water soluble proteins which carries the positive charge when the crushed seeds are added to water. This protein binds in raw water with negatively charged turbid water with bacteria, clay, algae, etc. Under proper mixing, these particles make flocks, which may be left to settle by gravity or be removed by filtration. Using Moringa oleifera as a replacement coagulation in such surface sources of arid and semi-arid areas can meet the need for water purification in remote places of Rajasthan state of India. The present study accesses to find out laboratory based investigation of the effect of seeds of Moringa tree on its coagulation effectiveness (purification) using turbid water samples of surface source of the Rajasthan state. In this study, moringa seed powder showed that filtering with seed powder may diminish water pollution and bacterial counts. Results showed Moringa oleifera seeds coagulate 90-95% of turbidity and color efficiently leading to an aesthetically clear supernatant & reduced about 85-90% of bacterial load reduction in samples.
2198
73230
Indoor Emissions Produced by Kerosene Heating, Determining Its Formation Potential of Secondary Particulate Matter and Transport
Abstract:
All emissions of contaminants inside of homes, offices, school and another enclosure closer that affect the health of those who inhabit or use them are cataloged how indoor pollution. The importance of this study is because individuals spend most of their time in indoors ambient. The main indoor pollutants are oxides of nitrogen (NOₓ), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). Combustion heaters are an important source of pollution indoors. It will be measured: NOₓ, SO₂, CO, PM₂,₅ y PM₁₀ continuous and discreet form at indoor and outdoor of two households with different heating energy; kerosene and electricity (control home) respectively, in addition to environmental parameters such as temperature. With the values obtained in the 'control home' it will be possible estimate the contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and later the contribution generated by kerosene heating. Transporting the emissions from burning kerosene to a photochemical chamber coupled to a continuous and discreet measuring system of contaminants it will be evaluated the oxidation of the emissions and formation of secondary particulate matter. It will be expected watch a contaminants transport from outside to inside of the household and the kerosene emissions present a high potential of formation secondary particulate matter.
2197
73231
Pollution Associated with Combustion in Stove to Firewood (Eucalyptus) and Pellet (Radiate Pine): Effect of UVA Irradiation
Abstract:
In several cities in Chile, there is significant urban pollution, particularly in Santiago and in cities in the south where biomass is used as fuel in heating and cooking in a large proportion of homes. This has generated interest in knowing what factors can be modulated to control the level of pollution. In this project was conditioned and set up a photochemical chamber (14m3) equipped with gas monitors e.g. CO, NOX, O3, others and PM monitors e.g. dustrack, DMPS, Harvard impactors, etc. This volume could be exposed to UVA lamps, producing a spectrum similar to that generated by the sun. In this chamber, PM and gas emissions associated with biomass burning were studied in the presence and absence of radiation. From the comparative analysis of wood stove (eucalyptus globulus) and pellet (radiata pine), it can be concluded that, in the first approximation, 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene, levoglucosan, water soluble potassium and CO present characteristics of the tracers. However, some of them show properties that interfere with this possibility. For example, levoglucosan is decomposed by radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene, 4-nitropyrene are emitted and formed under radiation. The 9-nitroanthracene has a vapor pressure that involves a partition involving the gas phase and particulate matter. From this analysis, it can be concluded that K+ is compound that meets the properties known to be tracer. The PM2.5 emission measured in the automatic pellet stove that was used in this thesis project was two orders of magnitude smaller than that registered by the manual wood stove. This has led to encouraging the use of pellet stoves in indoor heating, particularly in south-central Chile. However, it should be considered, while the use of pellet is not without problems, due to pellet stove generate high concentrations of Nitro-HAP's (secondary organic contaminants). In particular, 4-nitropyrene, compound of high toxicity, also primary and secondary particulate matter, associated with pellet burning produce a decrease in the size distribution of the PM, which leads to a depth penetration of the particles and their toxic components in the respiratory system.