International Science Index

International Journal of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

Analytical Approach to Study the Uncertainties Related to the Behavior of Structures Submitted to Differential Settlement
Recent developments in civil engineering create multiple interaction problems between the soil and the structure. One of the major problems is the impact of ground movements on buildings. Consequently, managing risks associated with these movements, requires a determination of the different influencing factors and a specific knowledge of their variability/uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to study the behavior of structures submitted to differential settlement, in order to assess their vulnerability, taking into consideration the different sources of uncertainties. Analytical approach is applied to investigate on the one hand the influence of these uncertainties that are related to the soil, and on the other hand to investigate the structure stiffness variation with the presence of openings and the movement transmitted between them as related to the origin and shape of the free-field movement. Results reveal the effect of taking these uncertainties into consideration, and specify the dominant and most significant parameters that control the ground movement associated with the Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) phenomenon.
The Failure and Energy Mechanism of Rock-Like Material with Single Flaw
This paper investigates the influence of flaw on failure process of rock-like material under uniaxial compression. In laboratory, the uniaxial compression tests of intact specimens and a series of specimens within single flaw were conducted. The inclination angle of flaws includes 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°. Based on the laboratory tests, the corresponding models of numerical simulation were built and loaded in PFC2D. After analysing the crack initiation and failure modes, deformation field, and energy mechanism for both laboratory tests and numerical simulation, it can be concluded that the influence of flaws on the failure process is determined by its inclination. The characteristic stresses increase as flaw angle rising basically. The tensile cracks develop from gentle flaws (α ≤ 30°) and the shear cracks develop from other flaws. The propagation of cracks changes during failure process and the failure mode of a specimen corresponds to the orientation of the flaw. A flaw has significant influence on the transverse deformation field at the middle of the specimen, except the 75° and 90° flaw sample. The input energy, strain energy and dissipation energy of specimens show approximate increase trends with flaw angle rising and it presents large difference on the energy distribution.
Experimental and Numerical Study of Uplift Resistance of Buried Pipeline in Gravel
Offshore pipelines are widely used to transfer hydrocarbons such as oil and gas from field to shore. It is necessary to transport these hydrocarbons at high temperature and pressure to ease the flow. However, constrained expansion set up by thermal and internal pressure may lead to the creation of axial compressive forces, which may cause buckling of offshore pipelines. In order to stop upheaval buckling and to minimize the effect of hydrodynamic forces on pipeline, provision of thick soil or rock cover above pipeline is required, which will increase the uplift resistance. A detailed review of available literature is performed to understand the effect of pull-out rate, the relative density of sand, effect of waves and currents on pipelines, importance of reinforcing the pipeline with geogrids, influence of height of cover depth above pipeline. In the present study, natural sand and gravel samples collected from Narmada river and offshore India respectively were characterized before testing. Two series of small-scale pull-out experiments were conducted on 470 mm diameter pipe buried in gravel to investigate the effectiveness of height of cover depth and geotextile on uplift resistance of pipelines. The first series of tests were in submerged gravel and the second series of tests were in submerged gravel reinforced with a single layer of geotextile. The geotextile was located directly on the pipe. Cover to diameter ratio varied from 2 to 4 with intervals of 0.5. The obtained experimental results were verified using commercial finite element package Abaqus. Small-scale experimental results and finite element parametric studies demonstrated the strong influence of geotextile and height of backfill material on uplift resistance of pipeline. It is concluded that with the application of a geotextile layer, depth of burial of a pipeline can be reduced.
Sloping Seabed Behavior Due to Water Surface Waves
Wave-induced seabed instability can cause serious damage to coastal infrastructure and offshore structures. The issue has been studied vastly for the flat or slightly sloped seabeds. However, with the deployment of Marine Hydrokinetic devices near and offshore, with potential deployment of some near the edge of the continental shelf, there is a need to consider steeper slopes and full interaction between the anchoring foundation and the seabed. In this work, a numerical model is developed to examine the failure potential of seabed with various inclination angles due to general shear failure and instantaneous liquefaction due to wave action. For this objective, first, the horizontal seabed response is evaluated by solving Biot’s equations in the framework of finite element analysis and verified by analytical solution. In this case, no interaction between the wave-induced water pressure and the soil response was considered. Second, the fluid domain is modeled assuming linear wave theory and a progressive water surface wave. A two-way coupling of pressure and flux between the two media is implemented. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effect of interaction on the system response. In addition, the effect of the sloping seabed and the shoaling waves is investigated. The results indicated that for typical values of sediment permeability and wave characteristics, the interaction of domains does not have a significant impact on soil response in comparison to decoupled approach when flat seabed is assumed. However, for modeling the inclined bed, the full interaction is required to achieve an accurate response characterization.
Non-Contact Measurement of Soil Deformation in a Cyclic Triaxial Test
Deformation in a conventional cyclic triaxial test is normally measured by using point-wise measuring device. In this study, non-contact measurement technique was applied to be able to monitor and measure the occurrence of non-homogeneous behavior of the soil under cyclic loading. Non-contact measurement is executed through image processing. Two-dimensional measurements were performed using Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm and it was implemented Labview. In this technique, the non-homogeneous deformation was monitored using a mirrorless camera. A mirrorless camera was used because it is economical and it has the capacity to take pictures at a fast rate. The camera was first calibrated to remove the distortion brought about the lens and the testing environment as well. Calibration was divided into 2 phases. The first phase was the calibration of the camera parameters and distortion caused by the lens. The second phase was to for eliminating the distortion brought about the triaxial plexiglass. A correction factor was established from this phase. A series of consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test was performed using a coarse soil. The results from the non-contact measurement technique were compared to the measured deformation from the linear variable displacement transducer. It was observed that deformation was higher at the area where failure occurs.
Full-Field Estimation of Cyclic Threshold Shear Strain
Cyclic threshold shear strain is the cyclic shear strain amplitude that serves as the indicator of the development of pore water pressure. The parameter can be obtained by performing either cyclic triaxial test, shaking table test, cyclic simple shear or resonant column. In a cyclic triaxial test, other researchers install measuring devices in close proximity of the soil to measure the parameter. This method can cause sample disturbance which can affect the result of the experiment. Although there are already existing methods in determining the parameter, the movement and behavior of the soil before and after reaching this parameter needs to be understood. A method that can be used is by applying full-field measurement technique. The technique uses a camera to monitor and measure the movement of the soil. This study is an attempt to estimate the cyclic threshold shear strain parameter. The applied technique has the capacity to monitor the behavior of the particles at cyclic loading. For this study, the technique was incorporated in a strain controlled consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial test. Two-dimensional image processing was implemented. Lucas and Kanade optical flow algorithm were applied to track the movement of the soil particles. Results from the full-field measurement technique were compared with the results from the linear variable displacement transducer.
The Effect of Spatial Variability on Axial Pile Design of Closed Ended Piles in Sand
While significant improvements have been made in axial pile design methods over recent years, the influence of soils natural variability has not been adequately accounted for within them. Soil variability is a crucial parameter to consider as it can account for large variations in pile capacity across the same site. This paper seeks to address this knowledge deficit, by demonstrating how soil spatial variability can be accommodated into existing cone penetration test (CPT) based pile design methods, in the form of layered non-homogeneous random fields. These random fields model the scope of a given property’s variance and define how it varies spatially. A Monte Carlo analysis of the pile will be performed taking into account parameter uncertainty and spatial variability, described using the measured scales of fluctuation. The results will be discussed in light of Eurocode 7 and the effect of spatial averaging on design capacities will be analysed.
Transient Electrical Resistivity and Elastic Wave Velocity of Sand-Cement-Inorganic Binder Mixture
The cement milk grout has been used for ground improvement. Due to the environmental issues related to cement, the reduction of cement usage is requesting. In this study, inorganic binder is introduced to reduce the use of cement contents for ground improvement. To evaluate transient electrical and mechanical properties of sand-cement-inorganic binder mixture, two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Free Free Resonant Column (FFRC) tests were adopted in addition to unconfined compressive strength test. Electrical resistivity, longitudinal wave velocity and damping ratio of sand-cement admixture samples improved with addition of inorganic binders were measured. Experimental tests were performed considering four different mixing ratios and three different cement contents depending on the curing time. Results show that mixing ratio and curing time have considerable effects on electrical and mechanical properties of mixture. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases as the cement content decreases. However, sufficient grout strength can be obtained with increase of content of inorganic binder. From the results, it is found that the inorganic binder can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of mixture and reduce the cement content. It is expected that data and trends proposed in this study can be used as reference in predicting grouting quality in the field.
An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands
Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.
Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading
This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.
Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand
It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.
The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility
The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.
Experimental Study of Sand-Silt Mixtures with Torsional and Flexural Resonant Column Tests
Dynamic properties of soils, especially at the range of very small strains, are of particular interest in geotechnical engineering practice for characterization of the behavior of geo-structures subjected to a variety of stress states. This study reports on the small-strain dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures with particular emphasis on the effect of non-plastic fines content on the small strain shear modulus (Gmax), Young’s Modulus (Emax), material damping (Ds,min) and Poisson’s Ratio (v). Several clean sands with a wide range of grain size characteristics and particle shape are mixed with variable percentages of a silica non-plastic silt as fines content. Prepared specimens of sand-silt mixtures at different initial void ratios are subjected to sequential torsional and flexural resonant column tests with elastic dynamic properties measured along an isotropic stress path up to 800 kPa. It is shown that while at low percentages of fines content, there is a significant difference between the dynamic properties of the various samples due to the different characteristics of the sand portion of the mixtures, this variance diminishes as the fines content increases and the soil behavior becomes mainly silt-dominant, rendering no significant influence of sand properties on the elastic dynamic parameters. Indeed, beyond a specific portion of fines content, around 20% to 30% typically denoted as threshold fines content, silt is controlling the behavior of the mixture. Using the experimental results, new expressions for the prediction of small-strain dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures are developed accounting for the percentage of silt and the characteristics of the sand portion. These expressions are general in nature and are capable of evaluating the elastic dynamic properties of sand-silt mixtures with any types of parent sand in the whole range of silt percentage. The inefficiency of skeleton void ratio concept in the estimation of small-strain stiffness of sand-silt mixtures is also illustrated.
Sample Preparation and Coring of Highly Friable and Heterogeneous Bonded Geomaterials
Most of the Earth’s crust surface rocks are technically categorized as weak rocks or weakly bonded geomaterials. Deeply weathered, weakly cemented, friable and easily erodible, they demonstrate complex material behaviour and understanding the overlooked mechanical behaviour of such materials is of particular importance in geotechnical engineering practice. Weakly bonded geomaterials are so susceptible to surface shear and moisture that conventional methods of core drilling fail to extract high-quality undisturbed samples out of them. Moreover, most of these geomaterials are of high heterogeneity rendering less reliable and feasible material characterization. In order to compensate for the unpredictability of the material response, either numerous experiments are needed to be conducted or large factors of safety must be implemented in the design process. However, none of these approaches is sustainable. In this study, a method for dry core drilling of such materials is introduced to take high-quality undisturbed core samples. By freezing the material at certain moisture content, a secondary structure is developed throughout the material which helps the whole structure to remain intact during the core drilling process. Moreover, to address the heterogeneity issue, the natural material was reconstructed artificially to obtain a homogeneous material with very high similarity to the natural one in both micro and macro-mechanical perspectives. The method is verified for both micro and macro scale. In terms of micro-scale analysis, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), pore spaces and inter-particle bonds were investigated and compared between natural and artificial materials. X-Ray Diffraction, XRD, analyses are also performed to control the chemical composition. At the macro scale, several uniaxial compressive strength tests, as well as triaxial tests, were performed to verify the similar mechanical response of the materials. A high level of agreement is observed between micro and macro results of natural and artificially bonded geomaterials. The proposed methods can play an important role to cut down the costs of experimental programs for material characterization and also to promote the accuracy of the numerical modellings based on the experimental results.
Influence of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Geotechnical Characteristics of Jarosite Waste
The quick evolution of industrialization causes the scarcity of precious land. Thus, it is vital need to influence the R&D societies to achieve sustainable, economic and social benefits from huge utilization of waste for universal aids. The current study promotes the influence of steel industries waste i.e. ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) in geotechnical properties of jarosite waste (solid waste residues produced from hydrometallurgy operations involved in extraction of Zinc). Numerous strengths tests (unconfined compression (qu) and splitting tensile strength (qt)) are conducted on jarosite-GGBS blends (GGBS, 10-30%) with different curing periods (7, 28 & 90 days). The results indicate that both qu and qt increase with the increase in GGBS content along with curing periods. The increased strength with the addition of GGBS is also observed from microstructural study, which illustrates the occurrence of larger agglomeration of jarosite-GGBS blend particles. The Freezing-Thawing (F-T) durability analysis is also conducted for all the jarosite-GGBS blends and found that the reduction in unconfined compressive strength after five successive F-T cycles enhanced from 62% (natural jarosite) to 48, 42 and 34% at 7, 14 and 28 days curing periods respectively for stabilized jarosite-GGBS samples containing 30% GGBS content. It can be concluded from this study that blending of cementing additives (GGBS) with jarosite waste resulted in a significant improvement in geotechnical characteristics.
1D Infiltration Behavior of Two-Layered Hydrophobic Recycled Concrete Aggregates in a Column Apparatus
One-dimensional (1D) vertical infiltration column tests have been carried out to study the infiltration characteristics of two different hydrophobic materials, fine and coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and if they are helpful to be used in a capillary barrier system. The tests were carried out on fine RCA over coarse RCA, fine RCA over coarse RCA with oil, and fine RCA over coarse RCA with wax. The column apparatus was instrumented with tensiometer-transducer system, data acquisition system, soil moisture sensor, and electronic weighing balance to measure various parameters viz pore-water pressure, water content, and outflow rate of water. The instruments facilitated the measurement of all these parameters instantaneously and automatically. The experimental results indicated that the rate of flow of within the RCA is modified upon coating with oil or wax. It was observed that the water flowed faster within the layer of coarse RCA with oil and wax as compared to that within the layer of coarse RCA without oil and wax. This could be attributed to the hydrophobicity of each solid particle of coarse RCA that was coated with oil and wax.
Load Carrying Capacity of Soils Reinforced with Encased Stone Columns
Stone columns are effectively used to improve bearing strength of soils and also for many geotechnical applications. In soft soils when stone columns are loaded they undergo large settlements due to insufficient lateral confinement. Use of geosynthetics encasement has proved to be a solution for this problem. In this paper, results of a laboratory experimental study carried out with model stone columns with and without encasement. Sand was used for making test beds, and grain size of soil varies from 0.075mm to 4.75mm. Woven geotextiles produced by Gareware ropes India with mass per unit area of 240gm/M2 and having tensile strength of 52KN/m is used for the present investigation. Tests were performed with large scale direct shear box and also using scaled laboratory plate load tests. Stone column of 50mm and 75mm is used for the present investigation. Diameter of stone column, size of stones used for making stone columns is varied in making stone column in the present study. Two types of stone were used namely small and bigger in size. Results indicate that there is an increase in angle of internal friction and also an increase in the shear strength of soil when stone columns are encased. With stone columns with 50mm dia, an average increase of 7% in shear strength and 4.6 % in angle of internal friction was achieved. When large stones were used increase in the shear strength was 12.2%, and angle of internal friction was increased to 5.4%. When the stone column diameter has increased to 75mm increase in shear strength and angle of internal friction was increased with smaller size of stones to 7.9 and 7.5%, and with large size stones, it was 7.7 and 5.48% respectively. Similar results are obtained in plate load tests, also.
Managing Shallow Gas for Offshore Platforms via Fit-For-Purpose Solutions: Case Study for Offshore Malaysia
Shallow gas seepage was first spotted at a central processing platform offshore Malaysia in 2010, acknowledged as Platform T in this paper. Frequent monitoring of the gas seepage was performed through remotely operated vehicle (ROV) baseline survey and a comprehensive geophysical survey was conducted to understand the characteristics of the gas seepage and to ensure that the integrity of the foundation at Platform T was not compromised. The origin of the gas back then was unknown. A soil investigation campaign was performed in 2016 to study the origin of the gas seepage. Two boreholes were drilled; a composite borehole to 150m below seabed for the purpose of soil sampling and in-situ testing and a pilot hole to 155m below the seabed, which was later converted to a fit-for-purpose relief well as an alternate migration path for the gas. During the soil investigation campaign, dissipation tests were performed at several layers which were potentially the source or migration path for the gas. Five (5) soil samples were segregated for headspace test, to identify the gas type which subsequently can be used to identify the origin of the gas. Dissipation tests performed at four depth intervals indicates pore water pressure less than 20 % of the effective vertical stress and appear to continue decreasing if the test had not been stopped. It was concluded that a low to a negligible amount of excess pore pressure exist in clayey silt layers. Results from headspace test show presence of methane corresponding to the clayey silt layers as reported in the boring logs. The gas most likely comes from biogenic sources, feeding on organic matter in situ over a large depth range. It is unlikely that there are large pockets of gas in the soil due to its homogeneous clayey nature and the lack of excess pore pressure in other permeable clayey silt layers encountered. Instead, it is more likely that when pore water at certain depth encounters a more permeable path, such as a borehole, it rises up through this path due to the temperature gradient in the soil. As the water rises the pressure decreases, which could cause gases dissolved in the water to come out of solution and form bubbles. As a result, the gas will have no impact on the integrity of the foundation at Platform T. The fit-for-purpose relief well design as well as adopting headspace testing can be used to address the shallow gas issue at Platform T in a cost effective and efficient manners.
The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas
An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.
Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area
Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.
Geotechnical Evaluation and Sizing of the Reinforcement Layer on Soft Soil in the Construction of the North Triage Road Clover, in Brasilia Federal District, Brazil
The constant growth of the fleet of vehicles in the big cities, makes that the Engineering is dynamic, with respect to the new solutions for traffic flow in general. In the Federal District (DF), Brazil, it is no different. The city of Brasilia, Capital of Brazil, and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, is projected to 500 thousand inhabitants, and today circulates more than 3 million people in the city, and with a fleet of more than one vehicle for every two inhabitants. The growth of the city to the North region, made that the urban planning presented solutions for the fleet in constant growth. In this context, a complex of viaducts, road accesses, creation of new rolling roads and duplication of the Bragueto bridge over Paranoa lake in the northern part of the city was designed, giving access to the BR-020 highway, denominated Clover of North Triage (TTN). In the geopedological context, the region is composed of hydromorphic soils, with the presence of the water level at some times of the year. From the geotechnical point of view, are soils with SPT < 4 and Resistance not drained, Su < 50 kPa. According to urban planning in Brasília, special art works can not rise in the urban landscape, contrasting with the urban characteristics of the architects Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer. Architects hired to design the new Capital of Brazil. The urban criterion then created the technical impasse, resulting in the technical need to ‘bury’ the works of art and in turn the access greenhouses at different levels, in regions of low support soil and water level Outcrossing, generally inducing the need for this study and design. For the adoption of the appropriate solution, Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Vane Test, Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) and auger boring campaigns were carried out. With the comparison of the results of these tests, the profiles of resistance of the soils and water levels were created in the studied sections. Geometric factors such as existing sidewalks and lack of elevation for the discharge of deep drainage water have inhibited traditional techniques for total removal of soft soils, thus avoiding the use of temporary drawdown and shoring of excavations. Thus, a structural layer was designed to reinforce the subgrade by means of the ‘needling’ of the soft soil, without the need for longitudinal drains. In this context, the article presents the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, but also the dimensioning of the reinforcement layer on the soft soil with a view to the main objective of this solution that is to allow the execution of the civil works without the interference in the roads in use, Execution of services in rainy periods, presentation of solution compatible with drainage characteristics and soft soil reinforcement.
Influence of Bottom Ash on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil
Clayey soils exhibit undesirable problems in civil engineering project: poor bearing soil capacity, shrinkage, cracking, …etc. On the other hand, the increasing production of bottom ash and its disposal in an eco-friendly manner is a matter of concern. Soil stabilization using bottom ash is a new technic in the geo-environmental engineering. It can be used wherever a soft clayey soil is encountered in foundations or road subgrade, instead of using old technics such as cement-soil mixing. This new technology can be used for road embankments and clayey foundations platform (shallow or deep foundations) instead of replacing bad soil or using old technics which aren’t eco-friendly. Moreover, applying this new technic in our geotechnical engineering projects can reduce the disposal of the bottom ash problem which is getting bigger day after day. The research consists of mixing clayey soil with different percentages of bottom ash at different values of water content, and evaluates the mechanical properties of every mix: the percentages of bottom ash are 10% 20% 30% 40% and 50% with values of water content of 25% 35% and 45% of the mix’s weight. Before testing the different mixes, clayey soil’s properties were determined: Atterbeg limits, soil’s cohesion and friction angle and particle size distribution. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties and behavior of every mix, different tests are conducted: -Direct shear test in order to determine the cohesion and internal friction angle of every mix. -Unconfined compressive strength (stress strain curve) to determine mix’s elastic modulus and compressive strength. Soil samples are prepared in accordance with the ASTM standards, and tested at different times, in order to be able to emphasize the influence of the curing period on the variation of the mix’s mechanical properties and characteristics. As of today, the results obtained are very promising: the mix’s cohesion and friction angle vary in function of the bottom ash percentage, water content and curing period: the cohesion increases enormously before decreasing for a long curing period (values of mix’s cohesion are larger than intact soil’s cohesion) while internal friction angle keeps on increasing even when the curing period is 28 days (the tests largest curing period), which give us a better soil behavior: less cracks and better soil bearing capacity.
Application of Geosynthetics for the Recovery of Located Road on Geological Failure
The present work deals with the use of drainage geo-composite as a deep drainage and geogrid element to reinforce the base of the body of the landfill destined to the road pavement on geological faults in the stretch of the TO-342 Highway, between the cities of Miracema and Miranorte, in the State of Tocantins / TO, Brazil, which for many years was the main link between TO-010 and BR-153, after the city of Palmas, also in the state of Tocantins / TO, Brazil. For this application, geotechnical and geological studies were carried out by means of SPT percussion drilling, drilling and rotary drilling, to understand the problem, identifying the type of faults, filling material and the definition of the water table. According to the geological and geotechnical studies carried out, the area where the route was defined, passes through a zone of longitudinal fault to the runway, with strong breaking / fracturing, with presence of voids, intense alteration and with advanced argilization of the rock and with the filling up parts of the faults by organic and compressible soils leachate from other horizons. This geology presents as a geotechnical aggravating agent a medium of high hydraulic load and very low resistance to penetration. For more than 20 years, the region presented constant excessive deformations in the upper layers of the pavement, which after routine services of regularization, reconformation, re-compaction of the layers and application of the asphalt coating. The faults were quickly propagated to the surface of the asphalt pavement, generating a longitudinal shear, forming steps (unevenness), close to 40 cm, causing numerous accidents and discomfort to the drivers, since the geometric positioning was in a horizontal curve. Several projects were presented to the region's highway department to solve the problem. Due to the need for partial closure of the runway, the short time for execution, the use of geosynthetics was proposed and the most adequate solution for the problem was taken into account the movement of existing geological faults and the position of the water level in relation to several Layers of pavement and failure. In order to avoid any flow of water in the body of the landfill and in the filling material of the faults, a drainage curtain solution was used, carried out at 4.0 meters depth, with drainage geo-composite and as reinforcement element and inhibitor of the possible A geogrid of 200 kN / m of resistance was inserted at the base of the reconstituted landfill. Recent evaluations, after 13 years of application of the solution, show the efficiency of the technique used, supported by the geotechnical studies carried out in the area.
Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests
Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.
Liquefaction Potential Analysis and Numerical Modeling-Container Terminal of Algiers Port
The aim of the present paper is to study the liquefaction potential of the container terminal of Algiers port site and perform a numerical modeling of its dynamic response under Boumerdes earthquake. The soil liquefaction potential was analyzed using two methods. The first is an analytical method requiring a series of observations and empirical correlations carried out from in-situ investigations, namely the SPT (Standard Penetration Test). In addition, the liquefaction safety factor obtained was verified according to the recommendations of the Eurocode rules and the Algerian earthquake regulation. The MSF coefficient was determined to obtain a corrected CSR value corresponding to a seismic motion with magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale. The second analysis is carried out using Plaxis2D (version 2016) software using soil parameters determined from standard triaxial and œdometric tests. The numerical modeling was established in order to study dynamic response and verify the liquefaction potential of Algiers port under Boumerdes earthquake taking into account the presence of the container static load.
Effect of Acid and Alkali Treatment on Physical and Surface Charge Properties of Clayey Soils
Most of the surface related phenomena in the case of fine-grained soil are attributed to their unique surface charge properties and specific surface area. The temporal variations in soil behavior, to some extent, can be credited to the changes in these properties. Among the multitude of factors that affect the charge and surface area of clay minerals, the inherent system chemistry occupies the cardinal position. The impact is more profound when the chemistry change is manifested in terms of the system pH. pH plays a significant role by modifying the edge charges of clay minerals and facilitating mineral dissolution. Hence there is a need to address the variations in physical and charge properties of fine-grained soils treated over a range of acidic as well as alkaline conditions. In the present study, three soils (two soils commercially procured and one natural soil) exhibiting distinct mineralogical compositions are subjected to different pH environment over a range of 2 to 13. The soil-solutions prepared at a definite liquid to solid ratio are adjusted to the required pH value by adding measured quantities of 0.1M HCl/0.1M NaOH. The studies are conducted over a range of interaction time, varying from 1 to 96 hours. The treated soils are then analyzed for their physical properties in terms of specific surface area and particle size characteristics. Further, modifications in surface morphology are evaluated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. Changes in the surface charge properties are assessed in terms of zeta potential measurements. Studies show significant variations in total surface area, probably because of the dissolution of clay minerals. This observation is further substantiated by the morphological analysis with SEM imaging. The zeta potential measurements on soils indicate noticeable variation upon pH treatment, which is partially ascribed to the modifications in the pH-dependant edge charges and partially due to the clay mineral dissolution. The results provide valuable insight into the role of pH in a clay-electrolyte system upon surface related phenomena such as species adsorption, fabric modification etc.
Directional Ground Improvement Technique for Urban Tunnel Projects in Vietnam
Almost all big cities in Vietnam are often located in the river deltas. Therefore the ground condition on these cities is mostly soft soil. As a result, the soil strengthen works are mandatory in order to prevent the harmful to the third parties and tunnel structure itself in urban tunnel projects in Vietnam. This paper will particularly introduce the large diameter jet-grouted column technique that is recently being successfully applied in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. The success application of this technique for protecting the historical sensitive building and for water cutoff objective of launching and arriving shafts in the urban tunnel project, will be analyzed from construction process, quality control and lessons learnt. From this situation, the large diameter jet-grouted column technique can extend to another urban tunnel projects in Vietnam and other countries which have similar soft soil conditions.
Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests
Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.
Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand
Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.
Application of Artificial Neural Network in Assessing Fill Slope Stability
This paper details the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of slope stability whereby quick and convenient solutions can be obtained using the developed tool. The AI tool used in this study is the artificial neural network (ANN) while the slope stability analysis methods are the finite element limit analysis methods. The developed tool allows for the prompt prediction of the safety factors of fill slopes and their corresponding probability of failure (depending on the degree of variation of the soil parameters), which can give practicing engineers a reasonable basis in their decision making. In fact, the successful use of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) algorithm shows that slope stability analysis is no longer confined to the conventional methods of modeling, which at times may be tedious and repetitive during the preliminary design stage where the focus is more on cost saving options rather than detailed design. Therefore, similar ANN-based tools can be further developed to assist engineers in this aspect.