International Science Index

International Journal of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

787
77794
Monitoring the Pollution Status of the Goan Coast Using Genotoxicity Biomarkers in the Bivalve, Meretrix Ovum
Abstract:
The coast of Goa, India receives constant anthropogenic stress through its major rivers which carry mining rejects of iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping and harbor-related activities which put the aquatic fauna such as bivalves at risk. The present study reports the pollution status of the Goan coast by the above xenobiotics employing genotoxicity studies. This is further supplemented by the quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and various trace metals (iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead) in gills of the estuarine clam, Meretrix ovum as well as from the surrounding water and sediment, over a two-year sampling period, from January 2013 to December 2014. Bivalves were collected from a probable unpolluted site at Palolem and a probable polluted site at Vasco, based upon the anthropogenic activities at these sites. Genotoxicity was assessed in the gill cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The quantity of TPHs and trace metals present in gill tissue, water and sediments were analyzed using spectrofluorometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The statistical significance of data was analyzed employing Student’s t-test. The relationship between DNA damage and pollutant concentrations was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Significant DNA damage was observed in the bivalves collected from Vasco which is a region of high industrial activity. Concentrations of TPHs and trace metals (iron, manganese, and cadmium) were also found to be significantly high in gills of the bivalves collected from Vasco compared to those collected from Palolem. Further, the concentrations of these pollutants were also found to be significantly high in the water and sediments at Vasco compared to that of Palolem. This may be due to the lack of industrial activity at Palolem. A high positive correlation was observed between the pollutant levels and DNA damage in the bivalves collected from Vasco suggesting the genotoxic nature of these pollutants. Further, M. ovum can be used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the level of pollution of the estuarine/coastal regions by TPHs and trace metals.
786
77114
Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine
Abstract:
Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.
785
63491
High Power Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications Using Phase Change Material Slurry
Abstract:
The successful integration of thermal energy storage in industrial processes is expected to play an important role in the energy turnaround. Latent heat storage technologies can offer more compact thermal storage at a constant temperature level, in comparison to conventional, sensible thermal storage technologies. The focus of this study is the development of latent heat storage solutions based on the Phase Change Slurry (PCS) concept. Such systems promise higher energy densities both as refrigerants and as storage media while presenting better heat transfer characteristics than conventional latent heat storage technologies. This technology is expected to deliver high thermal power and high-temperature stability which makes it ideal for storage of process heat. An evaluation of important batch processes in industrial applications set the focus on materials with a melting point in the range of 55 - 90 °C. Aluminium ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate (NH₄Al(SO₄)₂·12H₂O) was chosen as the first interesting PCM for the next steps of this study. The ability of this material to produce slurries at the relevant temperatures was demonstrated in a continuous mode in a laboratory test-rig. Critical operational and design parameters were identified.
784
76228
A Study on Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Patients Admitted to Emergency Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Abstract:
Background: In India, deliberate self-harm (DSH) with poisoning agents carries a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Changes in the patterns of poisoning vary across various geographical locations. It is important to know the patterns in a given region in order to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis, appropriate treatment to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Aim and Objective: To study the patterns, treatment outcomes of acute poisoning in patients admitted to emergency wards in a tertiary care hospital and to provide poison information services. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at M.S Ramaiah Memorial and Teaching Hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. The patient’s data was obtained from patient case sheet, interaction with health care professionals, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible), and were documented in a suitably designed form. Results: The study involved 131 patients with a mean age of 27.76 ± 15.5 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years, literates (n=53) dwelling in urban (n=113) areas belonging to upper middle class (n=50). Analgesics and antipyretics were commonly utilized in intentional drug overdosage (n=49). Envenomation constituted n=21(16.03%). Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and self-poisoning (n=64) (P < 0.001) which commonly occurred through oral ingestion. The outcomes were correlated with the GCS and PSS system and n=85 recovered, n=17 were discharged against medical advice, and n=4 died, and n=4 were lost to follow up respectively. The poison information queries include drug overdose (n=29) and management related queries (n=22) provided majorly by residents (n=45) to update knowledge (n=11) and for better patient care (n=40). Conclusion: The trend in poisoning is dynamic. Medications were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.
783
77548
Curcumin and Its Analogues: Potent Natural Antibacterial Compounds against Staphylococcus aureus
Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic of all staphylococci, a major cause of nosocomial infections, and known for acquiring resistance towards various commonly used antibiotics. Due to the widespread use of synthetic drugs, clinicians are now facing a serious threat in healthcare. The increasing resistance in staphylococci has created a need for alternatives to these synthetic drugs. One of the alternatives is a natural plant-based medicine for both disease prevention as well as the treatment of chronic diseases. Among such natural compounds, curcumin is one of the most studied molecules and has been an integral part of traditional medicines and Ayurveda from ancient times. It is a natural polyphenolic compound with diverse pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancerous and antibacterial activities. In spite of its efficacy and potential, curcumin has not been approved as a therapeutic agent yet, because of its low solubility, low bioavailability, and rapid metabolism in vivo. The presence of central β-diketone moiety in curcumin is responsible for its rapid metabolism. To overcome this, in the present study, curcuminoids were designed by modifying the central β-diketone moiety of curcumin into mono carbonyl moiety and their antibacterial potency against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was determined. Further, the mode of action and hemolytic activity of the most potent curcuminoids were studied. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in vitro killing kinetics were used to study the antibacterial activity of the designed curcuminoids. For hemolytic assay, mouse Red blood cells were incubated with curcuminoids and hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically. The mode of action of curcuminoids was analysed by membrane depolarization assay using membrane potential sensitive dye 3,3’-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide (DiSC3(5)) through spectrofluorimetry and membrane permeabilization assay using calcein-AM through flow cytometry. Antibacterial screening of the designed library (61 curcuminoids) revealed excellent in vitro potency of six compounds against S. aureus (MIC 8 to 32 µg/ml). Moreover, these six compounds were found to be non-hemolytic up to 225 µg/ml that is much higher than their corresponding MIC values. The in vitro killing kinetics data showed five of these lead compounds to be bactericidal causing >3 log reduction in the viable cell count within 4 hrs at 5 × MIC while the sixth compound was found to be bacteriostatic. Depolarization assay revealed that all the six curcuminoids caused depolarization in their corresponding MIC range. Further, the membrane permeabilization assay showed that all the six curcuminoids caused permeabilization at 5 × MIC in 2 hrs. This membrane depolarization and permeabilization caused by curcuminoids found to be in correlation with their corresponding killing efficacy. Both these assays point out that membrane perturbations might be a primary mode of action for these curcuminoids. Overall, the present study leads us six water soluble, non-hemolytic, membrane-active curcuminoids and provided an impetus for further research on therapeutic use of these lead curcuminoids against S. aureus.
782
72471
Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn
Abstract:
Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.
781
72357
Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the first study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.
780
78188
Comparison Studies on the Computational Complexities of the EEDSA
Abstract:
The elliptic ElGamal digital signature algorithm (EEDSA) has been created based on the ElGamal public key cryptosystem (EPKC) and the algorithm of the digital signature (DSA), defined on the elliptic curves E, which was accepted in several (ANSI, IEEE, NIST and ISO) standards. The EEDSA has been improved based on replacing the computation of a scalar multiplication kP that is used the point addition and doubling on elliptic curve by using the integer sub-decomposition (ISD) method. A scalar k in kP , on the proposed EEDSA-ISD method, has been sub-decomposed by k ≡ k11+k12λ1+k21+k22 λ2 (mod n), where k11, k12 , k21 , k22 ∈ [−√n ,√n], λ1, λ2 ∈ [1, n − 1] with λ1≠±λ2 and n is a prime order of a point P which lies on E. The sub-scalars, namely k11, k12 , k21 , k22 are computed by solving the shortest vector problem in lattice. The scalar multiplications kP on the EEDSA-ISD method are computed by kP = k11+k12ψ1(P)+k21+k22 ψ2(P), where ψ1(P)=λ1P and ψ2(P)=λ2P are two efficiently computable endomorphisms of E defined over Fp. The proposed EEDSA-ISD algorithm is benefited from the fast computations in the ISD method which is depended on the sub-decomposition of the scalars in scalar multiplications. The EEDSA-ISD method also depended on speeding the computations of the efficiently computable endomorphisms ψi, for i = 1,2, of elliptic curve E in ISD method. This paper proposes another mechanism to improve the EEDSA based on using the Gallant, Lambert and Vanstone (GLV) method. On the proposed EEDSA-GLV method, a scalar k is decomposed as k ≡ k1+k2λ (mod n), with max{|k1|,|k2|} ≤ √n, λ ∈ [1,n-1]. The scalar multiplication kP has been computed by kP=k1P+k2ψ(P), where ψ(P) is an efficiently computable endomorphism of E defined over a prime field Fp. This work also sheds light mainly on the computational complexities of the EEDSA-GLV and EEDSA-ISD algorithms those will be determined by computing the cost of the operations. These operations include elliptic curve operations and finite field operations. As well as, this work compared these two proposed methods on the basis of the computational complexity of each technique in one cycle operation. Our experiments reveal that the EEDSA-ISD method is faster than EEDSA-GLV method. Thus, the EEDSA-ISD method considers as an efficient algorithm in compared with the original EEDSA and EEDSA-GLV for cryptographic usages
779
78563
In vitro Determination of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition of the Flowers of Vanda Orchid, Vanda Tessellata Roxb. (1795) by Modified Colorimetric Maren T.H. (1960) Method
Abstract:
The orchid, Vanda tessellata was chosen by the researchers because of the presence of the constituents in the family Orchidaceae such as alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides that might give an inhibition activity of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme. This study aimed to determine the in vitro inhibition of carbonic anhydrase of Vanda tessellata flower extract. With the use of modified colorimetric Maren T.H. (1960) method, the time in seconds each test solution changed its color after the rate of CO2 hydration were recorded. Two solvents were used: the semi-polar, 95% ethanol and the non-polar, dichloromethane solvents. The percent inhibition activity of carbonic anhydrase of the different concentrations of solvents ethanol (1%, 25% and 50%) and dichloromethane (1% and 10%) test solutions were determined. Results showed that the ethanol-based extract of Vanda tessellata in different concentrations showed an inhibitory effect while the dichloromethane-based extract of Vanda tessellata showed no inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase activity. For ethanol extract, the concentration with the highest activity was 50% followed by 25% which changed its color from red to yellow with an average time of 13.11 seconds and 11.57 seconds but 1% with an average time of 7.56 seconds did not exhibit an effect. The researchers recommend the isolation of the specific active constituents of Vanda tessellata that is responsible for the inhibitory effect of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. It is also recommended to utilize different blood types to observe different reactions to the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase.
778
74316
Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy
Abstract:
Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.
777
76072
Formulation of the N-Acylethanolamine, Linoleoylethanolamide into Cubosomes for Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier
Abstract:
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipids, which have neuromodulatory properties. NAEs have shown neuroprotective properties in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ischemic stroke. However, NAEs are eliminated rapidly in vivo by enzymatic hydrolysis. We propose to encapsulate NAEs in liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) to increase their biological half-life and explore their therapeutic potential. Recently, we have reported the co-formulation and nanostructural characterization of cubosomes containing the NAE, oleoylethanolamide and a synthetic cubosome forming lipid phytantriol. Here, we report on the formulation of cubosomes with the NAE, linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) as the core cubosome forming lipid. LEA-cubosomes were formulated in the presence of three different steric stabilisers: two brain targeting ligands, Tween 80 and Pluronic P188 and a control, Pluronic F127. Size, morphology and internal structure of formulations were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo–TEM) and small angle X–ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. Chemical stability of LEA in formulations was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of formulations towards human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was also investigated using an MTT (3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. All cubosome formulations had mean particle size of less than 250 nm and were uniformly distributed with polydispersity indices less than 0.2. Cubosomes produced had a bicontinuous cubic internal structure with an Im3m space group but different lattice parameters, indicating the different modes of interaction between the stabilisers and LEA. LEA in formulations was found to be chemically stable. At concentrations of up to 20 µg/mL LEA in the presence of all the stabilisers, greater than 80% cell viability was observed.
776
72577
Oral Contraceptic Pill Associated Hypertension on the Sex Productive Women in the Andalas Public Health Center, Padang, Indonesia
Abstract:
Hypertension prevalence in Indonesian has increased from time to time since 2013, especially in women. This cross-sectional analysis study was made to observe the incidence of hypertension on the reproductive women (20-49 years old) with several risk factors who use contraceptive pills. Data was collected from June - October 2016 in the Andalas Public Health Center, East Padang District, Indonesia. An amount of 167 respondents who were taken using consecutive sampling technique were participate in this study. Data of social demography, contraceptive used, duration of use, hypertension risk factors (age, family history, central obesity, body mass index, physical activity, and stress) were collected and analyzed statistically using Chi-Square analysis. Significant was taken at p < 0.05. Results showed that the woman with contraceptive pill was tent to get hypertension (OR = 3,90 and p < 0,001). In addition, woman with a family history OR of 6,77 (p = 0,09), mild physical activity OR of 3,67 (p = 0,33), moderate physical activity OR of 3,33 (p = 0,16), and stressed OR of 5.11 (p = 0.18). These indicated that the contraceptive pill user is 3.9 times more risk to develop hypertension than non-users, especially one with a family history of hypertension. Other risk factors were not associated with hypertension risk in these sex productive women.
775
78580
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Use in a Tertiary Care Hospital by Using Specific Indicators: A Prospective, Observational Study
Abstract:
The discovery and usage of antimicrobial drugs is one of the most important and significant contributions to therapeutics in the 20th century. Apart from being very frequently used, they are often misused. The use and misuse of antimicrobial agents need to be evaluated since misuse of antimicrobials increases the risk of antimicrobial resistance while management and use of antimicrobials have clinical, economic, and environmental implications. This study was designed to assess the pattern of antimicrobial prescriptions, to identify the most common problems with antimicrobials prescription and to apply the various antimicrobial use indicators to check the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing pattern. A prospective, observational, hospital-based study was carried out at St. Philomena’s hospital located in Bangalore. Ethical committee clearance was obtained from the hospital before starting the study. The research student attended ward rounds on a daily basis and collected the cases which have been prescribed with antimicrobial agents. Both empirically prescribed antimicrobials, as well as the antimicrobials prescribed after culture sensitivity test, were included. Specified indicators were applied, and the collected data was analyzed. The results of this study indicate that women were slightly more vulnerable than men in developing infectious diseases who were majorly above 60 years of age. In this study, it was found that antibiotics were the most common type of antimicrobials prescribed among which cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were the most common class of antibiotics used. Anti-fungals (Azoles) and antivirals (anti-influenza) were the next most common type of antimicrobials prescribed. It was also observed that lower respiratory tract infection was the most common infectious disease diagnosed in these patients among whom chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were completely treated according to the standard treatment guidelines while pneumonia patients were partially treated according to the standard treatment guidelines. In this study, various indicators were also applied to evaluate the use of antimicrobial agents, and it was found that the use of antimicrobials was not appropriate. The use of antimicrobials was evaluated, and it was found that there is a need to promote rational use of antimicrobials, as irrational use would lead to antimicrobial resistance.
774
77684
Proliferative Effect of Some Calcium Channel Blockers on the Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line
Abstract:
Introduction: Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a positive as well as negative association and no association in some cases between chronic use of calcium channel blockers and the increased risk of developing cancer. However, these associations were enmeshed with controversies in the absence of laboratory based studies to back up those claims. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in mechanistic terms the association between the long-term administration of nifedipine and diltiazem and increased risk of developing cancer using the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line. Methods: Cell counting using the Trypan blue dye exclusion and 3-4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to investigate the effect of nifedipine and diltiazem on the growth pattern of HEK293 cells. Protein assay using modified Lowry method and analysis of intracellular polyamines concentration using Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were performed to ascertain the mechanism through which chronic use of nifedipine increases the risk of developing cancer. Results: Both nifedipine and diltiazem significantly increased the proliferation of HEK293 cells dose and time dependently. This proliferative effect after 24, 48 and 72-hour incubation period was observed at 0.78, 1.56 and 25 µM for nifedipine and 0.39, 1.56 and 25 µM for diltiazem, respectively. The increased proliferation of the cells was found to be statistically significantly (p
773
64973
Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach
Abstract:
Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.
772
65352
Cycas beddomei Dyer: An Endemic and Endangered Indian Medicinal Plant
Abstract:
Herbal medicines are gaining importance due to holistic nature and lesser side effects. Cycas beddomei Dyer is one of the highly exploited medicinal plants in India. Due to over-exploitation of male and female cones, young leaves and starch-bearing pithy stems for edible, medicinal and socio-cultural practices by the locals, tribals and traders, the plant population has drastically declined in its natural habitats. Cycas beddomei is an endemic to India. The current IUCN status of this plant species in the wild is endangered. Perhaps, it is the only species of Cycas enlisted in Appendix I of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora). Endorsing the CITES decisions, the Government of India has placed C. beddomei in the “Negative List of Exports” during 1998. Though this plant has been banned legally, but illegally, it is highly exploited by different means. Therefore, conservation of this species is an urgent need of the hour. The present paper highlights unique morphological and anatomical characters of C. beddomei, along with its present status, major threats and conservation measures. Cycas beddomei can easily be identified by some of the distinguishing morphological and anatomical characters, viz., 2–4 mm wide leaflets with revolute margins; the apices of microsporophylls from the middle to apex of the pollen cones turn downwards on maturity; mucilage canal cells are seen in the midrib region of the leaflets; stomatal frequency is about 18 numbers at 250x; pollen grains are monocolpate and their diameter ranging from 22.5 to 30 µm.
771
75910
Determination of Performances of Some Mulberry (Morus spp.) Species Selected from Different Places of Turkey under Kahramanmaras Conditions
Abstract:
Common mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species which were selected from different regions of Turkey were used as material in order to determine their performance. Therefore, phenological observations, pomological analysis (fruit size, fruit weight, fruit stalk length, acidity and TSS (Total Soluble Solids) and phytochemical properties organic acids (oxalic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) total phenolics and antioxidant capacity values of mulberries) were determined. Phenological observations of seven different periods were also identified. Fruit weight values varied between 3.48 to 4.26 g. TSS contents value were from 14.36 to 21.30%, and fruit acidity was determined between 0.29 to 2.02%. The amount of ascorbic acid of Finger mulberry (Morus levigate Wall.) and purple mulberry (Morus rubra L.) species were identified as 35.60% and 363.28%. The highest value of total phenolic contents belonged to with a finger mulberry genotypes P1 934.80 mg/100g whereas the lowest one was of purple mulberry genotypes 278.70 mg/100g. FRAP and TEAC methods were used for determination of antioxidant capacity of the values of 0.58-22.65 micromol TE/kg and 20.34-31.6 micromol TE/kg. Total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity strongly depends on fruit color intensity with a positive correlation. The obtained results have been found to be important as a source of future pharmacological studies and pomological and breeding programs.
770
75917
The Effects of Different Sowing Times on Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey
Abstract:
In this study carried out in 2013-14 growing season in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different sowing times on the seed yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Three fenugreek genotypes (Gürarslan, Candidate Line-1 and Genotype-1) were sown on 13.11.2013 and 07.03.2014 according to factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Plant height (cm), branch number per plant, first pod height (cm), pod length (mm), seed number per pod (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per decar (kg), thousand seed weight (g), mucilage rate (%), seed protein ratio (%), seed oil ratio (%), oleic acid (%), linoleic acid (%), palmitic acid (%) and stearic acid (%) were investigated. Among genotypes, while the highest seed yield per plant was obtained from Genotype-1 (5 g/plant), the lowest seed yield per plant was obtained from cv. Gürarslan (3.4 g/plant). According to genotype x sowing date interactions, it can be said that the highest seed yield per plant was taken in autumn sowing from Genotype-1 (6.6 g/plant) and the lowest seed yield per plant was taken in spring sowing from cv. Gürarslan (2.9 g/plant). Genotype-1 had the highest linoleic acid ratio (41.6 %). Cv. Gürarslan and Candidate Line-1 had the highest oleic acid ratio (respectively 17.8 % and 17.6%).
769
70152
Neuroprotective Effect of Crocus sativus against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
Abstract:
Disorders of the cerebral circulation are the leading cause of numerous neurological and psychiatric illnesses. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) is considered to be a reliable and reproducible rodent model of cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the neuroprotective effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) in a rat model of left middle cerebral artery MCAO. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and subjected to 1 h of MCAO followed by 48 h reperfusion or sham surgery. One group of the ischemia operated animals was kept as left brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Another 2 operated groups received saffron extract (100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) four times (60 min before the surgery, during the surgery, and on days 1 and 2 after the occlusion). During the experiment, behavioral tests were performed. After 72 h the animals were euthanized and their left brain hemispheres were used in the biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies. Saffron administration revealed an improvement in I/R-induced alteration of locomotor balance and coordination ability of rats. Moreover, saffron decreased the brain content of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, brain natriuretic peptide and vascular endothelial growth factor with significant increase of reduced glutathione. Immunohistochemical evaluation of caspase-3 and Bax protein expression revealed reduction in I/R-enhanced apoptosis in saffron treated rats. In conclusion, saffron treatment decreases ischemic brain injury in association with inhibition of apoptotic and oxidative cell death in a dose dependent manner.
768
78553
Application of Liquid Chromatographic Method for the in vitro Determination of Gastric and Intestinal Stability of Pure Andrographolide in the Extract of Andrographis paniculata
Abstract:
Gastrointestinal stability of andrographolide was evaluated in vitro in simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluids using a validated HPLC-PDA method. The method was validated using a 5μm ThermoHypersil GOLD C18column (250 mm × 4.0 mm) and mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile; 70: 30 (v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 228 nm. Andrographolide in pure form and extract Andrographis paniculata was incubated at 37°C in an incubator shaker in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids with and without enzymes. Systematic protocol as per FDA Guidance System was followed for stability study and samples were assayed at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min intervals for gastric and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min, 1, 2 and 3 h for intestinal stability study. Also, the stability study was performed up to 24 h to see the degradation pattern in SGF and SIF (with enzyme and without enzyme). The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Andrographolide was found to be stable in SGF (pH ∼ 1.2) for 1h and SIF (pH 6.8) up to 3 h. The relative difference (RD) of amount of drug added and found at all time points was found to be < 3%. The present study suggests that drug loss in the gastrointestinal tract takes place may be by membrane permeation rather than a degradation process.
767
76944
A Critical Review of the Success Model of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry
Authors:
Abstract:
The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is ranked third largest by volume and fourteenth by value. It thus accounts for 10% of world’s production by volume and 1.5% by value according to Department of Pharmaceuticals, Government of India. The industry has shown phenomenal growth over past few years, moving from US $ 1 billion turnover in 1990 to a turnover of around US $30 billion in 2015. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is ranked seventeenth in terms of export value of active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms to more than 200 countries around the globe. It has shown tremendous changes especially after Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. Recognizing the immense potential for growth and its direct impact on Indian economy, it is important to look up the industrial policies adopted since Indian independence which turnaround the Indian pharmaceutical industry. A systematic review of changes in market structure of Indian pharmaceutical industry due to shift in policy regimes is done from 1850 to 2015 using secondary peer reviewed published research work. The aim is to understand the impact of anti-trust laws, intellectual property rights, industry competition acts and regulations are quite crucial in determining effective economic policy and have overall lasting effects on international trade and ties. The proposed paper examines the position of Indian domestic firms relative to multinational pharmaceutical firms tries to throw some light on the growth curve of Indian pharmaceutical sector.
766
77906
Structure-Guided Optimization of Sulphonamide as Gamma–Secretase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Abstract:
In older people, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is turning out to be a lethal disease. According to the amyloid hypothesis, aggregation of the amyloid β–protein (Aβ), particularly its 42-residue variant (Aβ42), plays direct role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated through sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β–secretase (BACE) and γ–secretase (GS). Thus in the treatment of AD, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) are potential disease-modifying as they selectively lower pathogenic Aβ42 levels by shifting the enzyme cleavage sites without inhibiting γ–secretase activity. This possibly avoids known adverse effects observed with complete inhibition of the enzyme complex. Virtual screening, via drug-like ADMET filter, QSAR and molecular docking analyses, has been utilized to identify novel γ–secretase modulators with sulphonamide nucleus. Based on QSAR analyses and docking score, some novel analogs have been synthesized. The results obtained by in silico studies have been validated by performing in vivo analysis. In the first step, behavioral assessment has been carried out using Scopolamine induced amnesia methodology. Later the same series has been evaluated for neuroprotective potential against the oxidative stress induced by Scopolamine. Biochemical estimation was performed to evaluate the changes in biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), Glutathione reductase (GSH), and Catalase. The Scopolamine induced amnesia model has shown increased Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels and the inhibitory effect of test compounds in the brain AChE levels have been evaluated. In all the studies Donapezil (Dose: 50µg/kg) has been used as reference drug. The reduced AChE activity is shown by compounds 3f, 3c, and 3e. In the later stage, the most potent compounds have been evaluated for Aβ42 inhibitory profile. It can be hypothesized that this series of alkyl-aryl sulphonamides exhibit anti-AD activity by inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme as well as inhibition of plaque formation on prolong dosage along with neuroprotection from oxidative stress.
765
78226
Investigation of Antioxidant and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity of Hibiscus Acetosella Extract
Abstract:
The aim of this study is investigation of antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of Hibiscus acetosella extract in gathering data for other researches and products development. Hibiscus acetosella were extracted with water, ethanol and methanol. The antioxidant activity were investigated by using ABTS assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were investigated by using Fenton reaction. The results of this study showed Hibiscus acetosella extract had ability in antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenging which concentration is 10 mg/ml. The % inhibition of 10 mg/ml in antioxidant activity was 67.91% and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was 64.12%. However, this study was not enough for using in products development which should study in other tests such as anti-inflammatory properties, cytotoxicity and pure compound analysis for increasing the efficacy of products from Hibiscus acetosella.
764
76916
Cytotoxic Effect of Cassia Oil, Lemongrass Oil, Anise Oil and Cinnamaldehyde on Human Colorectal Cancer HT-29 Cells
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of essential oils including cassia oil, lemongrass oil and anise oil on human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by resazurin reduction assay. HT-29 cells were treated with the essential oil at 6.25–100 µg/ml for 48–72 h. The results revealed that cassia oil and lemongrass oil reduced cell viability of HT-29 with half maximal inhibitory concentrations after 48 h of treatment at 36.85 ± 8.94 and 77.91 ± 3.49 µg/ml, respectively. After 72 h of treatment, cassia oil and lemongrass oil reduced HT-29 cell viability with IC₅₀ value of 24.43 ± 6.62 and 67.96 ± 3.97 µg/ml, respectively. Anise oil at 100 µg/ml had a slightly cytotoxic effect to this cancer cell. Cinnamaldehyde, the major active compound of cassia oil, also reduced HT-29 cell viability with IC₅₀ value of 25.30 ± 8.29 and 19.00 ± 1.37 µg/ml at 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The results from this study demonstrated that cassia oil, lemongrass oil, and cinnamaldehyde had cytotoxic effect on human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. These essential oils and its active compound may have potential to be alternative chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents. Further studies in detail are needed for evaluating these beneficial potentialities.
763
71163
Ethnobotanical Study on the Usage of Toxic Plants in Traditional Medicine in the City Center of Tlemcen, Algeria
Abstract:
Traditional medicine has been part of the Algerian culture for decades. In particular, the city of Tlemcen still retains practices based on phytotherapy to the present day, as this kind of medicine fulfills the needs of its followers among the local population. Toxic plants contain various natural substances that have supplied many drugs to the pharmaceutical industry. In order to explore new medicinal sources among toxic plants, an ethnobotanical study was carried out on the use of these plants by the population, at Emir Abdelkader Square of the city of Tlemcen, a rather busy place with a high number of traditional health practitioners and herbalists. This is a descriptive and transversal study aimed at estimating the frequency of using toxic plants among the studied population, for a period of 4 months. The information was collected, using self-anonymous questionnaires, and analyzed by the IBM SPSS Statistics software used for statistical analysis. A sample of 200 people, including 120 women and 80 men, were interviewed. The mean age was (41 ± 16) years. Among those questioned, 83.5% used plants; 8% of them used toxic plants, and 35% used plants that can be toxic under certain conditions. Some improvements were observed in 88% of the cases where toxic plants were used. Eighty (80) medicinal plants, belonging to 36 botanical families, were listed, identified and classified. The most frequent indications for these plants were for respiratory diseases in 64.7% of cases, and for digestive disorders in 51.5% of cases. Eleven (11) % of these plants are toxic, 26% could be toxic under certain conditions. The most common ones are Berberis vulgaris with 5.4%, indicated in the treatment of uterine fibroids and thyroid, Rhamnus alaternus with 4.8% for hepatic jaundice, Nerium oleander with 3% for hemorrhoids, Ruta chalepensis with 1.2%, indicated for digestive disorders and dysmenorrhea, and Viscum album with 1.2%, indicated for respiratory diseases. The most common plants that could be toxic are Mentha pulegium (15.6%), Eucalyptus globulus (11.4%), and Pimpinella anisum (10.2%). This study revealed interesting results on the use of toxic plants, which are likely to serve as a basis for further ethnopharmacological investigations in order to get new drug sources.
762
74330
Study of the Antidiabetic Activity of the Common Fig of the Region El Amra Ain Defla, Algeria
Abstract:
Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.
761
63952
How Addictive Are They: Effects of E-Cigarette Vapor on Intracranial Self-Stimulation Compared to Nicotine Alone
Abstract:
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use vapor to deliver nicotine, have recently become popular, especially amongst adolescents. Because of this, the FDA has decided to regulate e-cigarettes, and therefore would like to determine the abuse liability of the products compared to traditional nicotine products. This will allow them to determine the impact of regulating them on public health and shape the decisions they make when creating new laws. This study assessed the abuse liability of Aroma E-juice Dark Honey Tobacco compared to nicotine using an animal model. This e-liquid contains minor alkaloids that may increase abuse liability compared to nicotine alone. The abuse liability of nicotine alone and e-juice liquid were compared in rats using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds. E-liquid had less aversive effects at high nicotine doses in the ICSS model, suggesting that the minor alkaloids in the e-liquid allow users to use higher doses without experiencing the negative effects felt when using high doses of nicotine alone. This finding could mean that e-cigarettes have a higher abuse liability than nicotine alone, but more research is needed before this can be concluded. These findings are useful in observing the abuse liability of e-cigarettes and will help inform the FDA while regulating these products.
760
66545
Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-On Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride
Abstract:
Among hepatic pyrimidine used as a means of stimulating protein synthesis and recovery of liver cells in her damaged toxic and infectious etiology. When an experimental toxic hepatitis hepatoprotective activity detected some pyrimidine derivatives. There are literature data on oksimetiluratcila hepatoprotective effect. For analogs of pyrimidine nucleobases - drugs Methyluracilum pentoxy and hepatoprotective effect of weakly expressed. According to the American scientists broad spectrum of biological activity, including hepatoprotective properties, have a 2,4-dioxo-5-arilidenimino uracils. Influenced Xymedon medicinal preparation (1- (beta-hydroxyethyl) -4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oksopirimidin) developed as a means of stimulating the regeneration of tissue revealed increased activity of microsomal oxidases human liver. In studies on the model of toxic liver damage in rats have shown hepatoprotective effect xymedon and stimulating its impact on the recovery of the liver tissue. Hepatoprotective properties of the new compound in the series of pyrimidine derivatives L-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropirimidine-2-one synthesized on the basis Xymedon preparation were firstly investigated on rats under the carbon tetrachloride action. It was shown the differences of biochemical parameters from the reference value and severity of structural-morphological liver violations decreased in comparison with control group under the influence of the compound injected before exposure carbon tetrachloride. Hepatoprotective properties of the investigated compound were more pronounced in comparison with Xymedon.
759
76622
Management Tools for Assessment of Adverse Reactions Caused by Contrast Media at the Hospital
Abstract:
Background: Contrast media has an important role for disease diagnosis through detection of pathologies. Contrast media can, however, cause adverse reactions after administration of its agents. Although non-ionic contrast media are commonly used, the incidence of adverse events is relatively low. The most common reactions found (10.5%) were mild and manageable and/or preventable. Pharmacists can play an important role in evaluating adverse reactions, including awareness of the specific preparation and the type of adverse reaction. As most common types of adverse reactions are idiosyncratic or pseudo-allergic reactions, common standards need to be established to prevent and control adverse reactions promptly and effectively. Objective: To measure the effect of using tools for symptom evaluation in order to reduce the severity, or prevent the occurrence, of adverse reactions from contrast media. Methods: Retrospective review descriptive research with data collected on adverse reactions assessment and Naranjo’s algorithm between June 2015 and May 2016. Results: 158 patients (10.53%) had adverse reactions. Of the 1,500 participants with an adverse event evaluation, 137 (9.13%) had a mild adverse reaction, including hives, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. These types of symptoms can be treated (i.e., with antihistamines, anti-emetics) and the patient recovers completely within one day. The group with moderate adverse reactions, numbering 18 cases (1.2%), had hypertension or hypotension, and shortness of breath. Severe adverse reactions numbered 3 cases (0.2%) and included swelling of the larynx, cardiac arrest, and loss of consciousness, requiring immediate treatment. No other complications under close medical supervision were recorded (i.e., corticosteroids use, epinephrine, dopamine, atropine, or life-saving devices). Using the guideline, therapies are divided into general and specific and are performed according to the severity, risk factors and ingestion of contrast media agents. Patients who have high-risk factors were screened and treated (i.e., prophylactic premedication) for prevention of severe adverse reactions, especially those with renal failure. Thus, awareness for the need for prescreening of different risk factors is necessary for early recognition and prompt treatment. Conclusion: Studying adverse reactions can be used to develop a model for reducing the level of severity and setting a guideline for a standardized, multidisciplinary approach to adverse reactions.
758
75669
Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Abstract:
Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.