The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.
The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.
We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.
During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an indispensable technique used in structure determination of small and macromolecules to study their physical properties, elucidation of characteristic interactions, dynamics and thermodynamic processes. Quantum mechanics defines the theoretical description of NMR spectroscopy and treatment of the dynamics of nuclear spin systems. The phenomenon of residual dipolar coupling (RDCs) has become a routine tool for accurate structure determination by providing global orientation information of magnetic dipole-dipole interaction vectors within a common reference frame. This offers accessibility of distance-independent angular information and insights to local relaxation. The measurement of RDCs requires an anisotropic orientation medium for the molecules to partially align along the magnetic field. This can be achieved by introduction of liquid crystals or attaching a paramagnetic center. Although anisotropic paramagnetic tags continue to mark achievements in the biomolecular NMR of large proteins, its application in small organic molecules remains unspread. Here, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of a lanthanide tag and the measurement of RDCs in organic molecules using paramagnetic lanthanide complexes.
Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.
The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.
In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.
Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.
Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.
The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.
The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from ID-VG characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.
Nowadays, the European Ecodesign Directive has emerged as a new approach to integrate environmental concerns into the product design and related processes. Ecodesign aims to minimize environmental impacts throughout the product life cycle, without compromising performances and costs. In addition, the recent Ecodesign Directives require products which are increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performances. It is very important for producers measuring performances, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use, and a low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point, also in terms of ecodesign requirements. The Ecodesign Directive provides a clear framework about the sustainable design of products and it has been extended in 2009 to all energy-related products, or products with an impact on energy consumption during the use. The European Regulation establishes measures of ecodesign of ovens, hobs, and kitchen hoods, and domestic use and energy efficiency of a product has a significant environmental aspect in the use phase which is the most impactful in the life cycle. It is important that the product parameters and performances are not affected by ecodesign requirements from a user’s point of view, and the benefits of reducing energy consumption in the use phase should offset the possible environmental impact in the production stage. Accurate measurements of cooking appliance performance are essential to help the industry to produce more energy efficient appliances. The development of ecodriven products requires ecoinnovation and ecodesign tools to support the sustainability improvement. The ecodesign tools should be practical and focused on specific ecoobjectives in order to be largely diffused. The main scope of this paper is the development, implementation, and testing of an innovative tool, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of induction hobs. In particular, a prototypical software tool is developed in order to simulate the energy performances of the induction hobs. The tool is focused on a multiphysics model which is able to simulate the energy performances and the efficiency of induction hobs starting from the design data. The multiphysics model is composed by an electromagnetic simulation and a thermal simulation. The electromagnetic simulation is able to calculate the eddy current induced in the pot, which leads to the Joule heating of material. The thermal simulation is able to measure the energy consumption during the operational phase. The Joule heating caused from the eddy currents is the output of electromagnetic simulation and the input of thermal ones. The aims of the paper are the development of integrated tools and methodologies of virtual prototyping in the context of the ecodesign. This tool could be a revolutionary instrument in the field of industrial engineering and it gives consideration to the environmental aspects of product design and focus on the ecodesign of energy-related products, in order to achieve a reduced environmental impact.
The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.
In this paper, propagation of cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media has been stimulated by using paraxial group transformation. At first, cos-Gaussian beam, nonlocal nonlinear media, critical power, transfer matrix, and paraxial group transformation are introduced. Then, the propagation of the cos-Gaussian beam in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media is simulated. Results show that beam propagation has periodic structure during self-focusing effect in this case. However, this simple method can be used for investigation of propagation of kinds of beams in ABCD optical media.
The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.
After the measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates, Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) was uprated the power from 2894 MWt to 2943 MWt. For power upgrade, several codes (e.g., TRACE, RELAP5, etc.) were applied to assess the safety of Kuosheng NPP. Hence, the main work of this research is to establish a RELAP5/MOD3.3 model of Kuosheng NPP with SNAP interface. The establishment of RELAP5/SNAP model was referred to the FSAR, training documents, and TRACE model which has been developed and verified before. After completing the model establishment, the startup test scenarios would be applied to the RELAP5/SNAP model. With comparing the startup test data and TRACE analysis results, the applicability of RELAP5/SNAP model would be assessed.
We examine the electronic transport properties in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices. Using the transfer-matrix technique and the exact Airy function formalism, we investigate theoretically the effect of structural parameters on the electronic energy spectra of trimer thickness barrier (TTB). Our numerical calculations showed that the localization length of the states becomes more extended when the disorder is correlated (trimer case). We have also found that the resonant tunneling time (RTT) is of the order of several femtoseconds.