International Science Index
Potential of High Performance Ring Spinning Based on Superconducting Magnetic Bearing
Due to the best quality of yarn and the flexibility of the machine, the ring spinning process is the most widely used spinning method for short staple yarn production. However, the productivity of these machines is still much lower in comparison to other spinning systems such as rotor or air-jet spinning process. The main reason for this limitation lies on the twisting mechanism of the ring spinning process. In the ring/traveler twisting system, each rotation of the traveler along with the ring inserts twist in the yarn. The rotation of the traveler at higher speed includes strong frictional forces, which in turn generates heat. Different ring/traveler systems concerning with its geometries, material combinations and coatings have already been implemented to solve the frictional problem. However, such developments can neither completely solve the frictional problem nor increase the productivity. The friction free superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) system can be a right alternative replacing the existing ring/traveler system. The unique concept of SMB bearings is that they possess a self-stabilizing behavior, i.e. they remain fully passive without any necessity for expensive position sensing and control. Within the framework of a research project funded by German research foundation (DFG), suitable concepts of the SMB-system have been designed, developed, and integrated as a twisting device of ring spinning replacing the existing ring/traveler system. With the help of the developed mathematical model and experimental investigation, the physical limitations of this innovative twisting device in the spinning process have been determined. The interaction among the parameters of the spinning process and the superconducting twisting element has been further evaluated, which derives the concrete information regarding the new spinning process. Moreover, the influence of the implemented SMB twisting system on the yarn quality has been analyzed with respect to different process parameters. The presented work reveals the enormous potential of the innovative twisting mechanism, so that the productivity of the ring spinning process especially in case of thermoplastic materials can be at least doubled for the first time in a hundred years. The SMB ring spinning tester has also been presented in the international fair “International Textile Machinery Association (ITMA) 2015”.
Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings
Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.
Optimization the Conditions of Electrophoretic Deposition Fabrication of Graphene-Based Electrode to Consider Applications in Electro-Optical Sensors
Graphene has gained much attention owing to its unique optical and electrical properties. Charge carriers in graphene sheets (GS) carry out a linear dispersion relation near the Fermi energy and behave as massless Dirac fermions resulting in unusual attributes such as the quantum Hall effect and ambipolar electric field effect. It also exhibits nondispersive transport characteristics with an extremely high electron mobility (15000 cm2/(Vs)) at room temperature. Recently, several progresses have been achieved in the fabrication of single- or multilayer GS for functional device applications in the fields of optoelectronic such as field-effect transistors ultrasensitive sensors and organic photovoltaic cells. In addition to device applications, graphene also can serve as reinforcement to enhance mechanical, thermal, or electrical properties of composite materials. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive method for development of various coatings and films. It readily applied to any powdered solid that forms a stable suspension. The deposition parameters were controlled in various thicknesses. In this study, the graphene electrodeposition conditions were optimized. The results were obtained from SEM, Ohm resistance measuring technique and AFM characteristic tests. The minimum sheet resistance of electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide layers is achieved at conditions of 2 V in 10 s and it is annealed at 200 °C for 1 minute.
Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating
For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.
Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method
This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.
Inﬂuence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior
The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.
Effect of Pack Aluminising Conditions on βNiAl Coatings
In this study, nickel aluminide coatings were deposited onto CMSX-4 single crystal superalloy and pure Ni substrates by using in-situ chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The microstructural evolutions and coating thickness (CT) were studied upon the variation of processing conditions i.e. time and temperature. The results demonstrated (under identical conditions) that coating formed on pure Ni contains no substrate entrapments and have lower CT in comparison to one deposited on the CMSX-4 counterpart. In addition, the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) of Ni substrate is a γ’-Ni3Al in comparison to the CMSX-4 alloy that is βNiAl phase. The higher CT on CMSX-4 superalloy is attributed to presence of γ-Ni/γ’-Ni3Al structure which contains ~ 15 at.% Al before deposition (that is already present in superalloy). Two main deposition parameters (time and temperature) of the coatings were also studied in addition to standard comparison of substrate effects. The coating formation time was found to exhibit profound effect on CT, whilst temperature was found to change coating activities. In addition, the CT showed linear trend from 800 to 1000 °C, thereafter reduction was observed. This was attributed to the change in coating activities.
Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction
Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti2O/SiO2), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.
Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs
Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.
Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment
High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright
light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical
procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates
strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical
instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non
reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision
surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully
developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of
the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for
developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.
UV-Cured Coatings Based on Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxy Carboxylate
During the past two decades, photoinitiated polymerization has been attracting a great interest in terms of scientific and industrial activity. The wide recognition of UV treatment in the polymer industry results not only from its many practical applications but also from its advantage for low-cost processes. Unlike most thermal curing systems, radiation-curable systems can polymerize at room temperature without additional heat, and the curing is completed in a very short time. The advantage of cationic UV technology is that post-cure can continue in the ‘dark’ after radiation. In this study, bio-based acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was cured with UV radiation using radicalic photoinitiator Irgacure 184. Triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate was used as cationic photoinitiator for curing of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate. The effect of curing time and the amount of initiators on the curing degree and thermal properties were investigated. The thermal properties of the coating were analyzed after crosslinking UV irradiation. The level of crosslinking in the coating was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Cationic UV-cured coatings demonstrated excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance properties. Therefore, our study holds a great potential with its simple and low-cost applications.
Cold Spray Deposition of SS316L Powders on Al5052 Substrates and Their Potential Using for Biomedical Applications
The corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel coatings obtained by cold spray method was investigated in this study. 316L powders were deposited onto Al5052 aluminum substrates. The coatings were produced using nitrogen (N2) process gas. In order to further improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of the coatings, heat treatment was applied at 250 and 750 °C. The corrosion performances of the coatings were compared using the potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) technique under in-vitro conditions (in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C). In addition, the hardness and porosity tests were carried out on the coatings. Microstructural characterization of the coatings was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was found that clean surfaces and a good adhesion were achieved for particle/substrate bonding. The heat treatment process provided both elimination of the anisotropy in the coating and resulting in healing-up of the incomplete interfaces between the deposited particles. It was found that the corrosion potential of the annealed coatings at 750 °C was higher than that of commercially 316 L stainless steel. Moreover, the microstructural investigations after the corrosion tests revealed that corrosion preferentially starts at inter-splat boundaries.
Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by PVD and IBAD
In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).
Anticorrosive Polyurethane Clear Coat with Self-Cleaning Character
We have aimed to produce a self-cleaning transparent
polymer coating with polyurethane (PU) matrix as the latter is highly
solvent, chemical and weather resistant having good mechanical
properties. Nano-silica modified by 1H, 1H, 2H, 2Hperflurooctyltriethoxysilane
was incorporated into the PU matrix for
attaining self-cleaning ability through hydrophobicity. The
modification was confirmed by particle size analysis and scanning
electron microscopy (SEM). Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) studies were
carried to ascertain the grafting of silane onto the silica. Several
coating formulations were prepared by varying the silica loading
content and compared to a commercial equivalent. The effect of
dispersion and the morphology of the coated films were assessed by
SEM analysis. All coating standardized tests like solvent resistance,
adhesion, flexibility, acid, alkali, gloss etc. have been performed as
per ASTM standards. Water contact angle studies were conducted to
analyze the hydrophobic character of the coating. In addition, the
coatings were also subjected to salt spray and accelerated weather
testing to analyze the durability of the coating.
Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate
This paper investigates the application of metallic
coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix
composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying
the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and
steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal
spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time
of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer.
The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are
characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The
samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance.
This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the
substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the
porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc
coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results
obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production
of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a
compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer
protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows
avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.
Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost
The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration
measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding
surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix
composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%,
and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by
using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify
coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The
parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation,
normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite
with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear
resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an
average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.
Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates
By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in
buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range
of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different
climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating
and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary
paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The
effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied
and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with
mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy
consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with
inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy
consumption of buildings around 14%.
Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate
Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming
tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness,
strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are
influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited
on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as
substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C
planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed
using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro
hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was
developed and the optimum response was determined using Response
Surface Methodology (RSM).
Evaluation of Chromium Fortified Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Cooking Quality and Sensory Properties
Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice, which
has a low glycemic index for diabetics. However, diabetics also have
a chromium (Cr) deficiency. Thus, it is important to fortify rice with
Cr to increase the Cr content. Moreover, parboiled rice becomes
rancid easily and has a musty odor, rendering the rice unfavorable.
Natural herbs such as pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius
Roxb.), bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum [Wigh] Walp) and
cinnamon bark powder (Cinnamomon cassia) are commonly added to
food as aroma enhancers. Previous research has shown that these
herbs could improve insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study
was to evaluate the effect of herbal extract coatings on the cooking
quality and the preference level of chromium fortified - parboiled rice
(CFPR). The rice grain variety used for this experiment was Ciherang
and the fortificant was CrCl3. The three herbal extracts used for
coating the CFPR were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf, with
concentration variations of 3%, 6%, and 9% (w/w) for each of the
extracts. The samples were analyzed for their alkali spreading value,
cooking time, elongation, water uptake ratio, solid loss, colour and
lightness; and their sensory properties were determined by means of
an organoleptic test. The research showed that coating the CFPR with
pandan and cinnamon extracts at a concentration of 3% each
produced a preferred CFPR. When coated with those herbal extracts
the CFPR had the following cooking quality properties: alkali
spreading value 5 (intermediate gelatinization temperature), cooking
time, 26-27 min, color value, 14.95-15.00, lightness, 42.30 – 44.06,
elongation, 1.53 – 1.54, water uptake ratio , 4.05-4.06, and solid loss,
0.09/100 g – 0.13 g/100 g.
Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coatings
Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in
buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to
protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3
nanocomposite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a
novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent
Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-
Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the
electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated
using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from
XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ-
Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the
electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina
sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to
more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings produced
more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure
when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni
coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina
nanoparticles into the coatings.
Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Properties of CrSiN Coating
The present study deals with the characterization of
CrSiN coatings obtained by PVD magnetron sputtering systems.
CrSiN films were deposited with different Si contents, in order to
check the effect of at.% variation on the different properties of the
Cr–N system. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) for thickness measurements, X-ray diffraction.
Surface morphology and the roughness characteristics were explored
using AFM, Mechanicals properties, elastic and plastic deformation
resistance of thin films were investigated using nanoindentation test. We observed that the Si addition improved the hardness and the
Young’s modulus of the Cr–N system. Indeed, the hardness value is
18,56 GPa for CrSiN coatings. Besides, the Young’s modulus value
is 224,22 GPa for CrSiN coatings for Si content of 1.2 at.%.
Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions
Pure nickel coatings have been successfully
electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique.
The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on
the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was
determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit
increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal
orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2
to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in
increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection.
An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture
coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained
at high current densities and duty cycle present a mixed morphology
of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was
achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings
with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the
microhardness of the coatings.
Investigation of Tribological Behavior of Electrodeposited Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 Nano-Composite Coatings
Electrodeposition is a simple and economic technique
for precision coating of different shaped substrates with pure metal,
alloy or composite films. Dc electrodeposition was used to produce
Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 nano-composite coatings from Cr(III)
based electrolytes onto 316L SS substrates. The effects of TiO2 nanoparticles
concentration on co-deposition of these particles along with
Cr content and microhardness of the coatings were investigated.
Morphology of the Cr, Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings besides their
tribological behavior were studied. The results showed that increment
of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration from 0 to 30 g L-1 in the bath
increased their co-deposition and Cr content of the coatings from 0 to
3.5 wt.% and from 23.7 to 31.2 wt.%, respectively. Microhardness of
Cr coating was about 920 Hv which was higher than Co-Cr and even
Co-Cr/TiO2 films. Microhardness of Co-Cr and Co-Cr/TiO2 coatings
were improved by increasing their Cr and TiO2 content. All the
coatings had nodular morphology and contained microcracks.
Nodules sizes and the number of microcracks in the alloy and
composite coatings were lower than the Cr film. Wear results
revealed that the Co-Cr/TiO2 coating had the lowest wear loss
between all the samples, while the Cr film had the worst wear
Influence of the Paint Coating Thickness in Digital Image Correlation Experiments
In the past decade, the use of digital image correlation
(DIC) techniques has increased significantly in the area of
experimental mechanics, especially for materials behavior
characterization. This non-contact tool enables full field displacement
and strain measurements over a complete region of interest. The DIC
algorithm requires a random contrast pattern on the surface of the
specimen in order to perform properly. To create this pattern, the
specimen is usually first coated using a white matt paint. Next, a
black random speckle pattern is applied using any suitable method. If
the applied paint coating is too thick, its top surface may not be able
to exactly follow the deformation of the specimen, and consequently,
the strain measurement might be underestimated. In the present
article, a study of the influence of the paint thickness on the strain
underestimation is performed for different strain levels. The results
are then compared to typical paint coating thicknesses applied by
experienced DIC users. A slight strain underestimation was observed
for paint coatings thicker than about 30μm. On the other hand, this
value was found to be uncommonly high compared to coating
thicknesses applied by DIC users.
Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-cut Papaya (Carica papaya)
Psyllium gum alone and in combination with
sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating
for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya.
Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium
gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples,
refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the
effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya
lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil.
Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the
firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was
found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to
maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore,
minimizing the weight loss.
Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Coatings
The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an
optimized combustion-like process followed by calcination is
described herein. The samples were characterized using X-ray
diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning
electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods.
Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48
(stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the asprepared
powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the G/N
ratio of 2 results in the formation of the desired copper spinel single
phase at both calcination temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of
CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates
decompose to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to
copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react with each other
to form a copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and
the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized
samples were 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C),
Production and Characterization of Sol-Enhanced Zn- Ni-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coating
Sol-enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings
were electroplated on mild steel by our newly developed solenhanced
electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol
was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3nanocomposite
coatings. The chemical composition, microstructure and
mechanical properties of the composite and alloy coatings deposited
at two different agitation speed were investigated. The structure of all
coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. The composite coatings possess
refined crystals with higher microhardness compared to Zn-Ni alloy
coatings. The wear resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved
significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the
coatings. Higher agitation speed provided more uniform coatings
with smaller grain sized and slightly higher microhardness.
Considering composite coatings, high agitation speeds may facilitate
co-deposition of alumina in the coatings.
Development and Characterization of Bio-Tribological, Nano-Multilayer Coatings for Medical Tools Application
Development of new generation bio-tribological,
multilayer coatings opens an avenue for fabrication of future hightech
functional surfaces. In the presented work, nano-composite,
Cr/CrN+[Cr/ a-C:H implanted by metallic nanocrystals] multilayer
coatings have been developed for surface protection of medical tools.
Thin films were fabricated by a hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition
technique. Complex microstructure analysis of nanomultilayer
coatings, subjected to mechanical and biological tests, were
performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Microstructure characterization revealed the layered arrangement of
Cr23C6 nanoparticles in multilayer structure. Influence of deposition
conditions on bio-tribological properties of the coatings was studied.
The bio-tests were used as a screening tool for the analyzed
nanomultilayer coatings before they could be deposited on medical
tools. Bio-medical tests were done using fibroblasts. The mechanical
properties of the coatings were investigated by means of a ball-ondisc
mechanical test. The micro hardness was done using Berkovich
indenter. The scratch adhesion test was done using Rockwell
indenter. From the bio-tribological point of view, the optimal
properties had the C106_1 material.
Hemocompatible Thin-Film Materials Recreating the Structure of the Cell Niches with High Potential for Endothelialization
The future and the development of science is therefore
seen in interdisciplinary areas such as biomedical engineering. Selfassembled
structures, similar to stem cell niches would inhibit fast
division process and subsequently capture the stem cells from the
blood flow. By means of surface topography and the stiffness as well
as microstructure progenitor cells should be differentiated towards
the formation of endothelial cells monolayer which effectively will
inhibit activation of the coagulation cascade. The idea of the material
surface development met the interest of the clinical institutions,
which support the development of science in this area and are waiting
for scientific solutions that could contribute to the development of
heart assist systems. This would improve the efficiency of the
treatment of patients with myocardial failure, supported with artificial
heart assist systems. Innovative materials would enable the redesign,
in the post project activity, construction of ventricular heart assist.
Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition
The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their
susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive
physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and
corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and
coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received
considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as
cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance,
lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent
solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In
this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91
magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited a harder and
rougher structure than the substrate.