International Science Index
Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls
The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.
Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns
Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.
Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading
Shear walls made of cold formed steel are used as lateral force resisting components in residential and low-rise commercial and industrial constructions. The seismic design analysis of such structures is often complex due to the slenderness of members and their instability prevalence. In this context, a simplified modeling technique across the panel is proposed by using the finite element method. The approach is based on idealizing the whole panel by a nonlinear shear link element which reflects its shear behavior connected to rigid body elements which transmit the forces to the end elements (studs) that resist the tension and the compression. The numerical model of the shear wall panel was subjected to cyclic loads in order to evaluate the seismic performance of the structure in terms of lateral displacement and energy dissipation capacity. In order to validate this model, the numerical results were compared with those from literature tests. This modeling technique is particularly useful for the design of cold formed steel structures where the shear forces in each panel and the axial forces in the studs can be obtained using spectrum analysis.
Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates
Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.
Application Problems of Anchor Dowels in Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall and Frame Connections
Strengthening of the existing seismically deficient reinforced concrete (RC) buildings is an important issue in earthquake prone regions. Addition of RC shear wall as infill or external walls into the structural system has been a commonly preferred strengthening technique since the Big Erzincan Earthquake occurred in Turkey, 1992. The newly added rigid infill walls act primarily as shear walls and relieve the non-ductile existing frames from being subjected to large shear demands providing that new RC inner or external walls are adequately anchored to the existing weak RC frame. The performance of the RC shear walls-RC weak frame connections by steel anchor dowels depends on some parameters such as compressive strength of the existing RC frame concrete, diameter and embedment length of anchored rebar, type of rebar, yielding stress of bar, properties of used chemicals, position of the anchor bars in RC. In this study, application problems of the steel anchor dowels have been checked with some field studies such as tensile test. Two different RC buildings which will be strengthened were selected, and before strengthening, some tests have been performed in the existing RC buildings. According to the field observation and experimental studies, if the concrete compressive strength is lower than 10 MPa, the performance of the anchors is reduced by 70%.
Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads
While the shear walls are not economical in buildings, thin shear walls are widely used in the buildings. In the present study, the ratio of different loads to their plasticity and seismic behavior of the wall under different loads have been investigated. Modeling and analysis are carried out by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that any increase in the exerted loads will have adverse effects on the seismic behavior of the thin shear walls and causes the wall to collapse by small displacements.
Numerical Evaluation of Shear Strength for Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall Panel
The stability of structures made of light-gauge steel depends highly on the contribution of Shear Wall Panel (SWP) systems under horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake loads. Steel plate sheathing is often used with these panels made of cold formed steel (CFS) to improve its shear strength. In order to predict the shear strength resistance, two methods are presented in this paper. In the first method, the steel plate sheathing is modeled with plats strip taking into account only the tension and compression force due to the horizontal load, where both track and stud are modeled according to the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the specimen used in the experiments. The theoretical background and empirical formulations of this method are presented in this paper. However, the second method is based on a micro modeling of the cold formed steel Shear Wall Panel “CFS-SWP” using Abaqus software. A nonlinear analysis was carried out with an in-plan monotonic load. Finally, the comparison between these two methods shows that the micro modeling with Abaqus gives better prediction of shear resistance of SWP than strips method. However, the latter is easier and less time consuming than the micro modeling method.
Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force
Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases.
Time-Dependent Behavior of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Strengthened with Composite Plates Having Variable Fibers Spacing
In this study, the time-dependent behavior of damaged
reinforced concrete shear wall structures strengthened with composite
plates having variable fibers spacing was investigated to analyze their
seismic response. In the analytical formulation, the adherent and the
adhesive layers are all modeled as shear walls, using the mixed Finite
Element Method (FEM). The anisotropic damage model is adopted to
describe the damage extent of the Reinforced Concrete shear walls.
The phenomenon of creep and shrinkage of concrete has been
determined by Eurocode 2. Large earthquakes recorded in Algeria
(El-Asnam and Boumerdes) have been tested to demonstrate the
accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for non-uniform distributions of
carbon fibers in epoxy matrices. The effects of damage extent and the
delay mechanism creep and shrinkage of concrete are highlighted.
Prospects are being studied.
The Effects of Placement and Cross-Section Shape of Shear Walls in Multi-Story RC Buildings with Plan Irregularity on Their Seismic Behavior by Using Nonlinear Time History Analyses
Environmental and functional conditions, sometimes,
necessitate the architectural plan of the building to be asymmetric,
and this result in an asymmetric structure. In such cases finding an
optimal pattern for locating the components of lateral load bearing
system, including shear walls, in the building’s plan is desired. In
case of shear wall in addition to the location the shape of the wall
cross-section is also an effective factor. Various types of shear walls
and their proper layout might come effective in better stiffness
distribution and more appropriate seismic response of the building.
Several studies have been conducted in the context of analysis and
design of shear walls; however, few studies have been performed on
making decisions for the location and form of shear walls in multistory
buildings, especially those with irregular plan. In this study, an
attempt has been made to obtain the most reliable seismic behavior of
multi-story reinforced concrete vertically chamfered buildings by
using more appropriate shear walls form and arrangement in 7-, 10-,
12-, and 15-stoy buildings. The considered forms and arrangements
include common rectangular walls and L-, T-, U- and Z-shaped plan,
located as the core or in the outer frames of the building structure.
Comparison of seismic behaviors of the buildings, including
maximum roof displacement and particularly formation of plastic
hinges and their distribution in the buildings’ structures, have been
done based on the results of a series of nonlinear time history
analyses, by using a set of selected earthquake records. Results show
that shear walls with U-shaped cross-section, placed as the building
central core, and also walls with Z-shaped cross-section, placed at the
corners give the building more reliable seismic behavior.
Seismic Assessment of an Existing Dual System RC Buildings in Madinah City
A 15-storey RC building, studied in this paper, is
representative of modern building type constructed in Madina City in
Saudi Arabia before 10 years ago. These buildings are almost
consisting of reinforced concrete skeleton i.e. columns, beams and
flat slab as well as shear walls in the stairs and elevator areas
arranged in the way to have a resistance system for lateral loads
(wind – earthquake loads). In this study, the dynamic properties of
the 15-storey RC building were identified using ambient motions
recorded at several, spatially-distributed locations within each
building. Three dimensional pushover analysis (Nonlinear static
analysis) was carried out using SAP2000 software incorporating
inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The effect
of modeling the building with and without infill walls, on the
performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ
design spectrum function in Madina area has been investigated. ATC-
40 capacity and demand spectra are utilized to get the modification
factor (R) for the studied building. The purpose of this analysis is to
evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by
estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and
comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance
levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.
Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall
Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are
composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer
sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both
reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel
plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing
capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the
super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we
analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin
steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the
effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete
strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite
shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear
stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly
affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete,
(2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the
shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin
steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in
the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in
Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering
experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls
have great potential for future research and applications.
Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions
The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased
profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings
that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this
work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having
L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as
longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this
paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L
section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary
regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2.
L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions
were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of
CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting
the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy
graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental
results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted
and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.
Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings
R.C.C. buildings with dual structural system
consisting of shear walls (or braces) and moment resisting frames
have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The
dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in
proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of combination of
braces and shear walls has not yet been studied. The combination
may prove to be more effective to resist lateral forces during
earthquakes. This concept has been applied to regular R.C.C.
buildings provided with shear walls, braces and their combinations.
Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading
This paper present the experimental work of double
unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic
loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested
until its strength degradation. Then, the TFB is repaired and
retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet.
The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent
viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and
after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength
increases by 22% in pushing and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover,
the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase
tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the
energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained
after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be
concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the
lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double
Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls
This paper presents an analytical study on the
behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section.
Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied.
Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear
wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of
the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and
Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall
strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear
wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in
functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the
response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values
of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are
developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and
27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of
peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.
Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes
Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significantly affect the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasize was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are too much enhanced while less drift improvements are observed.
Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames
The International Building Code (IBC) and the
California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of
steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced
frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on
specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these
steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an
innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the
general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an
existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically
active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this
configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically
require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval.
This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code
requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed
to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010
California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames
and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.
Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams
Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.
Comparative Study of the Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Storey Irregular Building
As the world move to the accomplishment of Performance Based Engineering philosophies in seismic design of Civil Engineering structures, new seismic design provisions require Structural Engineers to perform both static and dynamic analysis for the design of structures. While Linear Equivalent Static Analysis is performed for regular buildings up to 90m height in zone I and II, Dynamic Analysis should be performed for regular and irregular buildings in zone IV and V. Dynamic Analysis can take the form of a dynamic Time History Analysis or a linear Response Spectrum Analysis. In present study, Multi-storey irregular buildings with 20 stories have been modeled using software packages ETABS and SAP 2000 v.15 for seismic zone V in India. This paper also deals with the effect of the variation of the building height on the structural response of the shear wall building. Dynamic responses of building under actual earthquakes, EL-CENTRO 1949 and CHI-CHI Taiwan 1999 have been investigated. This paper highlights the accuracy and exactness of Time History analysis in comparison with the most commonly adopted Response Spectrum Analysis and Equivalent Static Analysis.
The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior
Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.
Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading
The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
Design Alternatives for Lateral Force-Resisting Systems of Tall Buildings in Dubai, UAE
Four design alternatives for lateral force-resisting
systems of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE are presented. Quantitative
comparisons between the different designs are also made. This paper
is intended to provide different feasible lateral systems to be used in
Dubai in light of the available seismic hazard studies of the UAE.
The different lateral systems are chosen in conformance with the
International Building Code (IBC). Moreover, the expected behavior
of each system is highlighted and light is shed on some of the cost
implications associated with lateral system selection.
Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model
In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls
Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are
known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using
un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy
absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling
capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs
can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper
presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel
shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for
the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary
frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to
obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy
dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto-
thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy
dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and
deformation capacities were obtained for all models.
Mathematical Approach for Large Deformation Analysis of the Stiffened Coupled Shear Walls
Shear walls are used in most of the tall buildings for
carrying the lateral load. When openings for doors or windows are
necessary to be existed in the shear walls, a special type of the shear
walls is used called "coupled shear walls" which in some cases is
stiffened by specific beams and so, called "stiffened coupled shear
In this paper, a mathematical method for geometrically nonlinear
analysis of the stiffened coupled shear walls has been presented.
Then, a suitable formulation for determining the critical load of the
stiffened coupled shear walls under gravity force has been proposed.
The governing differential equations for equilibrium and deformation
of the stiffened coupled shear walls have been obtained by setting up
the equilibrium equations and the moment-curvature relationships for
each wall. Because of the complexity of the differential equation, the
energy method has been adopted for approximate solution of the